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Nicolaus Copernicus

Biography of Nicolaus Copernicus
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Nicolaus Copernicus Biography

Nicolaus Copernicus was a famous astronomer at the time of the Renaissance and was who formulated the heliocentric theory of the solar system, initially interpreted by Aristarchus of Samos. Nicolaus was born in Frombork Poland on February 19, 1473. He was the son of Niklas Koppernigk and Barbara Watzenrode.

At the age of 10, Nicholas would be orphaned and his maternal uncle Lucas Watzenrode who was canon and later bishop of the Warmia region would adopt him. While studying, Copernicus would be oriented toward the clerical field in the Cathedral School of Wloclawek, due to his uncle influence.

Between 1491 and 1494 he entered the University of Krakow motivated by his uncle. However, in 1496 he moved to the University of Bologna where he pursued careers in law, medicine, Greek, philosophy and at the same time worked as an assistant of the well-known astronomer Domenico da Novara. At the end of 1499, Copernicus graduated from the University of Bologna and traveled to Rome at the beginning of 1500, where he took a science and astronomy course in which he acquired many skills that will help him later on for the formulation of his theories.

Copernicus returned to his native country in 1501 to be appointed canon of the cathedral of Frauenburg, position conceived with the help of his uncle Lucas. Despite having this position, the astronomer was always motivated to complement his studies, so he again traveled to Italy to do complementary studies of law and medicine in the city of Padua, also making a pass through Ferrara where he obtained the title of doctor in canon law in the year 1503.

Around 1523, Copernicus settled definitively in his native country, where he dedicated his time to the administration of the Diocese of Warmia, managed to work as a doctor, performed some administrative positions and began the development of his great field work of astronomy.

Nicolaus Copernicus in his career and life managed to make great contributions to science and astronomy among which stand out:

 

THE HELIOCENTRIC THEORY

In 1536, Copernicus had almost finished his work on this theory and rumors were already heard throughout Europe about the reason why he had to expedite the completion of his work to start publishing it from different parts of the continent. Despite this pressure, Copernicus delayed a bit the publication of his work for fear of criticism from various groups.

In his theory, Copernicus stated a series of ideas, which explained the conception of the universe:

  • The celestial movements are uniform, circular, eternal or are formed by several cycles.
  • The central location of the universe is close to the sun.
  • The celestial bodies rotate around the sun in orbitals and in order: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Uranus and Neptune were not known at that time.
  • Stars are distant objects that are still, so they do not rotate around the sun.
  • The earth performs three movements: the rotation that it does daily, the annual translation and the annual inclination of its axis.
  • The retrograde movement made by the other planets of the solar system is explained by the movement of the earth.
  • The distance between the sun and the earth is small compared to the distance between the sun and the stars.

 

ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF HEAVENLY SPHERES

This was the greatest work that Nicolaus Copernicus could create in his life and was written between 1507 and 1532, were 25 years of work that the world would know in 1543 when it was published by Andreas Osiander. Copernicus had to study Pythagorean writings, Heraclides Ponticus and other philosophers which he used as a reference to analyze the problem of terrestrial movement. This work was highlighted by being divided into 6 precise and clear books:

  • Overview of the heliocentric theory, and a short explanation of its conception of the world.
  • Basically theoretical, it presents the principles of spherical astronomy and a list of stars (as a basis for the arguments developed in subsequent books).
  • Dedicated mainly to the apparent movements of the sun and related phenomena.
  • Description of the moon and its orbital movements.
  • A concrete explanation of the new system.

Nicolaus Copernicus would die on May 24, 1543, in Frombork, Poland. He could not see the great impact that his work has caused in humanity and science.

Undoubtedly, the legacy left by Nicolaus Copernicus is unique as he is considered the pioneer of modern astronomy, as well as providing bases that served Newton to complete the astronomical revolution by passing from a geocentric universe to a heliocentric cosmos. To sum up, what is known as the Copernican revolution refers to the formulation of the Heliocentric theory, which states that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun.

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Willem Einthoven

Willem Einthoven Biography
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Willem Einthoven Biography

Willem Einthoven (May 21, 1860 – September 28, 1927) Physiologist and physician. Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1924. He was born in Semarang, Indonesia. He is well known for his contributions to the development of the electrocardiograph and its clinical application. His father died when they lived in Java, so Willem moved to the University of Utrecht to study medicine.

After finishing his studies he obtained the position of professor at the University of Leiden to deal with the positions of physiology and histology. He took the opportunity to advance an important work in the field of research. He quickly showed himself as a reputable scientist, participated in numerous international scientific forums and the best thing is that by managing several languages ​​he could communicate his ideas faithfully without the need for translators.

For several years he experimented with the rope galvanometer and its utility for the registration of cardiac potentials, and the results obtained were published in an article in the year 1901. Five years later, he masterfully described the clinical applications of the electrocardiogram in Telecardiogramme (1906). After that, he published another article that laid the foundations for the development of this important tool in cardiology analysis. His investigative work was carried out simultaneously with his work as a professor.

Thanks to his work, the galvanometer was used to measure the differences in electrical potential during systolic and diastolic heart contractions and reproduce them graphically. This procedure is known as an electrocardiogram.

Later, he was interested in analyzing how healthy hearts worked and then defining a reference frame, through which attention was paid to the deviations caused by the disease. To sum up, he revolutionized the study, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac pathologies. In his honor, the lunar crater Einthoven bears his name.

 

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Lucy Wills

Lucy Wills Biography
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Lucy Wills Biography

Lucy Wills (May 10, 1888 – 1964) hematologist and botany. She was born in Sutton Coldfield, United Kingdom. Her family enjoyed a good social and economic position. Therefore, she was able to study at Cheltenham Ladies ’College, an educational institute that offered high educational standards in teaching. Then, she studied Botany and Geology in 1911 but did not receive a Cambridge graduate degree until 1928, when Cambridge began granting degrees to women.

By that time, Wills had admirably managed to graduate as a doctor at the London Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine for Women. From the beginning, he knew that he would devote her knowledge to research and teaching in the Department of Pathological Chemistry of the same center in London. For the year 1928 Margaret Balfour contacted her. For several years she served as chief of pathology until her retirement in 1947.

After her retirement, she worked in South Africa and Fiji studying the effects of nutrition on health. During the last ten years of her life, she was a member of the local government for Chelsea. She started working on macrocytic anemia of pregnancy that primarily affects pregnant women in the tropics, with inadequate diets, this work was developed in several areas of India.

This woman is owed several contributions, such as discovering a nutritional factor in yeast that prevents and cures this disorder: the Wills factor or folate, the natural form of folic acid. In that sense, in the year 1930, she showed that anemia could be reversed with brewer’s yeast, which contains folate.

As part of a recognition of her work and the advancement of medicine, on May 10, 2019, the 131st anniversary of her birth, the Google search engine commemorated Wills with a Doodle available for North America, parts of South America and Europe, Israel, India, and New Zealand. Her knowledge changed the face of prenatal preventive care for women around the world.

 

WORKS

  • Studies on blood and urinary chemistry during pregnancy: blood sugar curves.
  • Studies in pernicious anemia of pregnancy (1930). This research has 4 parts.
  • Treatment of “pernicious anemia” of pregnancy and “tropical anemia” with special reference to yeast extract as a healing agent.
  • The nature of the hemopoietic factor in Marmite.
  • A new factor in the production and cure of certain macrocytic anemias.
  • Tropical macrocytic anemia: its relationship with pernicious anemia.
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Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard Biography
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Claude Bernard Biography

Claude Bernard (July 12, 1813 – February 10, 1878) physiologist. He was born in Saint-Julien, France. The top representative of the French physiology of the 19th century. His life was dedicated to studying the nervous regulation of salivary secretion, pancreatic digestion, and glycogenic liver function. He is admired for having discovered vasomotor innervation and creating the concept of internal secretion. His contributions to experimental pharmacology are also salvageable.

Bernard at nineteen entered as a clerk in a pharmacy in Vaise, a suburb of Lyon. He liked literature so he wrote a drama entitled Arthur de Bretagne, he went to Paris; but then he started studying medicine, leaving literature aside. At first, he had the guidance of the physiologist François Magendie, who was a trainer, and soon gave proof of his genius. In 1843 he could already demonstrate the glycogenic function of the liver. He was an assistant to Magendie and professor of physiology at Collège de France. In the year of 1853, he obtained the title of doctor of science with the thesis Investigations about a new function of the liver, considered as a producing organ of sugary matter.

The following year he was a professor of experimental medicine at the Collège de France. Years later, and thanks to the knowledge acquired, he wrote Introduction to the study of experimental medicine (1865) allowed him to be part of the French Academy; this year he was entrusted with the chair of general physiology of the Sorbonne Natural History Museum, and in 1869 he was appointed member of the Imperial Senate of Napoleon III. In 1870 his intellectual vitality was affected by a kidney disease contracted because of the cold and humidity of his laboratory.

This French defended the determinism linked to neo-vitalism. He also studied, in addition to hepatic glycogenesis, the sympathetic nervous system and poisons. Among his works are Leçon sur la physiologie expérimentale appliquée a la médecine (1856), Les propriétés des tissus vivants (1866) and Leçon Sur Les phenomènes de la vie (1878).

In broad strokes, his works advocated naturalistic principles and thus generated a great influence that he exerted on the naturalist movement, mainly in Zola. Bernard establishes the rules of medicine that is true science and method, must have a solid foundation. For hi medicine must be like physics and chemistry, a science that undergoes an experimental method. But experience is not proven simply by the facts, without being guided by a precise conviction; rather, it must be rigorous and complete experimentation. So, the philosophical and theological yoke is excluded, admitting a personal scientific authority.

Thus, Bernard says, the hypotheses will encourage discoveries and experimentation serves as a guide. Émile Zola developed in his thinking of naturalist novelist Bernard’s famous scientific premises; his essay The experimental novel represents the attempt to apply the principles of physiology to a conception of art. Unfortunately, he died on February 10, 1878. He is remembered for being one of the referents of experimental physiology of the nineteenth century, and, at the same time, one of the most illustrious thinkers of the time in Europe. The medicine had many advances in an anomaly that affects the sympathetic nerves of the face, it was called Claude Bernard-Horner syndrome.

Similarly, he contributed to the development of therapeutics, diabetes, indications of bleeding, detoxification by carbon monoxide through mechanical ventilation, the treatment of anemia with iron lactate, the decrease in body temperature through physical means, treatment of alcohol intoxication, morphine applications, the effects of carbon dioxide, intravenous administration of physiological serum, cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques, among others.

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Adolf Von Baeyer

Adolf Von Baeyer Biography
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Adolf Von Baeyer Biography

Adolf von Baeyer (October 31, 1835 – August 20, 1917) Chemist and Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1905). He was born in Berlin, Germany. He is recognized for the research he carried out on the structure and artificial synthesis of numerous organic compounds. In short, he discovered phenolphthalein and fluorescein. Baeyer is known primarily for the synthesis of indigo.

His father was a military man named Jakob Baeyer, and creator of the European geodetic measurement system. From an early age, Adolf showed great interest in chemistry. His curiosity and intelligence allowed him to synthesize and isolate for the first time a double copper salt with only twelve years of age. Upon finishing his high school studies he entered the University of Berlin to study physics and mathematics. In 1856 he joined the laboratory of Robert Bunsen in Heidelberg. A year later he published the results of several studies on methyl chloride (CH3Cl). In the year of 1858, he was the first research assistant of August Kekulé. The knowledge of this chemist was very helpful in organic chemistry.

Baeyer began studies on uric acid that led to the synthesis of barbituric acid. Then, he served as a professor at the University of Berlin in 1860. Thanks to his long days in the laboratory he discovered that when a complex molecule was subjected to high temperatures in the presence of zinc dust, it could be fragmented. Two of his disciples: Carl Graebe and Karl Liebermann, unraveled the structure of alizarin, a red dye from the root of the tinctorum used to dye the uniforms of the French army.

After seventeen years of studies and research, he found the synthesis of indigo, an intense blue tincture obtained from the leaves and stems of the Indigofera tinctorum. So, he made a synthesis between 1878 and 1882. They were not used for commercial purposes (although, today this dye is necessary for the textile industry). Thanks to this he received the Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1881.

In 1868 he married Adelheid Bendemann. In 1871 he obtained a place at the University of Strasbourg, which he left two years later to start as Professor at the University of Munich. He enjoyed a modern laboratory. He conducted studies on acetylene and polyacetylene, works with benzene and cyclic terpenes, on the other hand, defined the Theory of Torsion, basically, this allows us to understand why those of five and six carbons are the most stable existing cyclic compounds. His work and scientific career were recognized in 1905 with the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his contribution to organic chemistry through chemical dyes. That same year, he turned seventy birthdays, and several of his articles were published in important scientific journals.

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Sergey Brin

Sergey Brin biography
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Sergey Brin biography

Sergei Brin (August 21, 1973) computer scientist and creator of the Internet search engine Google. He was born in Moscow, Soviet Union. Sergei Brin was born into a Jewish family that enjoyed a well-off position but due to their religious beliefs, the Russian government prevented them from certain possibilities. His father, Mikhail Brin, was a mathematician, and his mother, Eugenia Brin, worked in the field of science when Sergei was six years old they decided to move to the United States to find better living conditions.

When they arrived, their mother landed a major position in NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, and her father obtained a position as professor of Mathematics at the University of Maryland, she also decided to change her name, due to North American anti-communist policies, Michael Brin. He entered to study at the Paint Branch Montessori School. His parents were very attentive in the education of his son, who demonstrated a great ability for mathematics. Throughout his school years, he was a student with excellent grades.

Upon graduation, he enrolled at the University of Maryland to study Mathematics and Computer Science. In the stipulated time, 1993, he received his degree with honors and applied for a grant from the National Science Foundation. He began his postgraduate studies at Stanford University. Simultaneously, he started working at Wolfram Research, the creator of Mathematica. While in the winter of 1998, he began to develop an idea to create a search engine for the internet, the idea was developed with the help of Larry Page. His great motivation was the inefficiency and the multiple errors of the search engines existing at that time.

They held several meetings with brilliant people in this field, and they met Andy Bechtolsheim, an investor from Sun Microsystems. They decided to present their idea, they also made a quick demonstration and they got that, without thinking twice, Bechtolsheim extended a check worth 100,000 dollars to start the project. Although with this amount achieved only the beginning of the project, the young people full of enthusiasm began to get other economic support and various sources of income. As a result, Brin and Page managed to get two of the most relevant US venture capital firms, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital, to agree to finance their idea. They then collected 25 million dollars. The project was still ongoing.

At first, they thought of the word googol to baptize their search engine, a term invented by the mathematician Edward Kasner to name the number 1 followed by 100 zeros. Then they changed their name to Google. We must mention that Yahoo! played an essential role in driving Google. Yahoo! collaborated encouraging the creation of his own search engine, the pair of colleagues began to offer in its popular portal the possibility of searching through that engine. For the year 2003, Google swept daily searches, had about 112 million, compared to Yahoo !, which only supported approximately 42 million.

The reason was that Google was more effective, its presentation was much more attractive, and allowed more fixed searches. Brin and Page decided to add new possibilities to the dozen functions related to their search engine and the continuous experimentation with many others. Something really innovative was that Google allowed the users to easily locate images, newsgroups and searches using the Open Directory thematic directory tool, an international volunteer project that catalogs web pages by hand.

After a few years, thanks to the popularity of Google, colleagues received a Webby, a prize. Google was inserting new services every time, such as the search engine of products on sale in the Google network; the product search within mail order catalogs; a language translator, among other new features. When the new millennium began Google began to think about the modification and restructuring of its building located in the Californian region of Mountain View, more than a hundred employees worked in an unusual environment.

So they adopted as a philosophy: to offer a pleasant place to work and with that to motivate and retain employees. Among the renovations are yoga classes, massages, bars, free ice cream machines, food prepared with organic food by two chefs, a ping-pong table, swimming pool, two pianos, and hockey meetings twice a week. The goal of Google at that time was especially to create better search engines, extract information from unstructured sources and databases of long collections of text and scientific information.

Brin has authored more than a dozen articles in top-level academic journals and has also been a lecturer in various international academic forums, most of them are business and technology, in 2002, Brin was proclaimed “Young Innovator Who Will Create the Future” by Technology magazine Review This publication was edited by the prestigious Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). What this couple achieved, especially at Brin’s initiative, was impressive. At present everyone knows and has used Google.

Although it has been censored by some countries of totalitarian politics like China. According to computer experts, Google is “the saving medicine” for most Internet users. One of its characteristics is the speed and effectiveness. Now, its design is simple and direct, and without incorporating advertising in its pages that generate distraction in the users. We must accept that, Internet users have preferred this search engine to the detriment of other, earlier, more popular ones. Brin has advanced several projects, along with Larry Page, who are looking for ways to solve the problem of global energy and environmental hazards through Google’s philanthropic area called Google.org.

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