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Willem Einthoven

Willem Einthoven Biography

Willem Einthoven Biography

Willem Einthoven (May 21, 1860 – September 28, 1927) Physiologist and physician. Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1924. He was born in Semarang, Indonesia. He is well known for his contributions to the development of the electrocardiograph and its clinical application. His father died when they lived in Java, so Willem moved to the University of Utrecht to study medicine.

After finishing his studies he obtained the position of professor at the University of Leiden to deal with the positions of physiology and histology. He took the opportunity to advance an important work in the field of research. He quickly showed himself as a reputable scientist, participated in numerous international scientific forums and the best thing is that by managing several languages ​​he could communicate his ideas faithfully without the need for translators.

For several years he experimented with the rope galvanometer and its utility for the registration of cardiac potentials, and the results obtained were published in an article in the year 1901. Five years later, he masterfully described the clinical applications of the electrocardiogram in Telecardiogramme (1906). After that, he published another article that laid the foundations for the development of this important tool in cardiology analysis. His investigative work was carried out simultaneously with his work as a professor.

Thanks to his work, the galvanometer was used to measure the differences in electrical potential during systolic and diastolic heart contractions and reproduce them graphically. This procedure is known as an electrocardiogram.

Later, he was interested in analyzing how healthy hearts worked and then defining a reference frame, through which attention was paid to the deviations caused by the disease. To sum up, he revolutionized the study, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac pathologies. In his honor, the lunar crater Einthoven bears his name.




Lucy Wills

Lucy Wills Biography

Lucy Wills Biography

Lucy Wills (May 10, 1888 – 1964) hematologist and botany. She was born in Sutton Coldfield, United Kingdom. Her family enjoyed a good social and economic position. Therefore, she was able to study at Cheltenham Ladies ’College, an educational institute that offered high educational standards in teaching. Then, she studied Botany and Geology in 1911 but did not receive a Cambridge graduate degree until 1928, when Cambridge began granting degrees to women.

By that time, Wills had admirably managed to graduate as a doctor at the London Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine for Women. From the beginning, he knew that he would devote her knowledge to research and teaching in the Department of Pathological Chemistry of the same center in London. For the year 1928 Margaret Balfour contacted her. For several years she served as chief of pathology until her retirement in 1947.

After her retirement, she worked in South Africa and Fiji studying the effects of nutrition on health. During the last ten years of her life, she was a member of the local government for Chelsea. She started working on macrocytic anemia of pregnancy that primarily affects pregnant women in the tropics, with inadequate diets, this work was developed in several areas of India.

This woman is owed several contributions, such as discovering a nutritional factor in yeast that prevents and cures this disorder: the Wills factor or folate, the natural form of folic acid. In that sense, in the year 1930, she showed that anemia could be reversed with brewer’s yeast, which contains folate.

As part of a recognition of her work and the advancement of medicine, on May 10, 2019, the 131st anniversary of her birth, the Google search engine commemorated Wills with a Doodle available for North America, parts of South America and Europe, Israel, India, and New Zealand. Her knowledge changed the face of prenatal preventive care for women around the world.



  • Studies on blood and urinary chemistry during pregnancy: blood sugar curves.
  • Studies in pernicious anemia of pregnancy (1930). This research has 4 parts.
  • Treatment of “pernicious anemia” of pregnancy and “tropical anemia” with special reference to yeast extract as a healing agent.
  • The nature of the hemopoietic factor in Marmite.
  • A new factor in the production and cure of certain macrocytic anemias.
  • Tropical macrocytic anemia: its relationship with pernicious anemia.
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Hippocrates biography
Photo: user:shakko / CC BY-SA 3.0

Hippocrates biography

Hippocrates of Kos (460 BC – 370 BC) doctor. He was born on the island of Kos, Ancient Greece. It is said that Hippocrates came from a family of magicians from the island of Kos and was directly related to the Greek god of medicine: Asclepius. He grew up in the times of Socrates and Plato, who cited him several times in his works. Hippocrates not only received medical training in Greece but made a trip to Egypt, where he directly knew the medical work attributed to Imhotep. This man was an Egyptian scholar considered a great doctor and in general a great sage.

Hippocrates began to capture all his knowledge and approaches from young. He is the author of a kind of medical encyclopedia of antiquity, said encyclopedia contained at least several dozen books (approximately 60 to 70). In his texts, the conception of illness is defended as the consequence of an imbalance between what he called the humor liquids of the body, that is, blood, phlegm and yellow bile or anger and black bile or melancholy. We must mention that this theory was further developed by Galen and that he would dominate medicine until the Enlightenment.

Hippocrates proposed to attack these conditions the use of medicinal plants and recommended clean air and a healthy and balanced diet. This was a really innovative approach for the time that is why he considered himself the father of medicine. However, among his contributions the consideration of the body as a whole stands out, Hippocrates emphasized in the making of detailed observations of the symptoms and taking into consideration the clinical history of the patients. In the field of medical ethics we can say that the approaches of Hippocrates gathered in the famous oath that bears his name, were the basis of modern ethics.

For Hippocrates, it was necessary to seek care and cure of the sick, in addition, to avoid abusing the trust of patients, especially women and also maintain confidentiality. In his writing, better known as the Hippocratic collection, he exposes diverse tendencies, which in certain cases can even oppose each other. These writings were written around 350 b.C., are an important source to get an idea of ​​medical practices and conceptions prior to the Alexandrian era.

In Old Medicine, it was proposed to investigate the origin of the art that he practiced, an origin that he found in the desire to offer to the human being a regime of life and, especially, to generate a healthy diet that aims to satisfy in a rational way the most immediate of the human. For this reason, Hippocrates affirmed and spread the need to correctly cook food as a first manifestation of the search for a better existence.

Hippocrates really did not boast of saying that all his approaches were new, but he accepted that they came as a tradition from the middle of the fifth century and that they had to develop. The medical discoveries of the writers of the Hippocratic Corpus are often intermingled; the practitioners of Hippocratic medicine and the actions of Hippocrates himself, this tends to generate a lack of knowledge of Hippocrates himself and his contributions to the medical field.

Despite this situation, in particular, he is credited with great progress in the systematic study of clinical medicine, he managed to gather the medical knowledge of previous schools and combine medical practices of great historical importance, such as the Hippocratic oath and other works. This ability was learned from the great Egyptian doctor. We can also say that the teachings of his father, Heraclides, also a doctor, were fundamental. His mother, Praxitela, was also very important in his intellectual development. Polybius was the true successor of Hippocrates. Hippocrates was also a man interested in theurgy and philosophy.

The first was a magical-religious practice that sought the invocation of the over-earthly powers, communication with angels and gods to receive spiritual help. Hippocrates was mentioned in the dialogue of Plato Protagoras, in which the philosopher described him as «Hippocrates of Cos, that of the Asclepiates». He was mentioned very rarely, or at least the texts that mentioned him do not survive.

This Greek doctor made other shorter trips to Thessaly, Thrace and the Sea of ​​Marmara, where he obtained several medical knowledge. Throughout history, he has been recognized for his important and lasting contributions to this science as the founder of the school that bears his name. We must say that this intellectual school revolutionized the medicine of its time, and managed to establish it as a discipline separate from other fields with which it had traditionally been associated, in that sense, it became an authentic profession.

The life of Hippocrates probably ended in Larisa at the age of 90 years in 370 b.C, although according to some sources he exceeded 100 years.

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Deepak Chopra

Deepak Chopra biography
Photo: Mitchell Aidelbaum / CC BY-SA 2.0

Deepak Chopra biography

Deepak Chopra (October 22, 1946) Ayurvedic medicine doctor, motivational speaker, writer, internist and lecturer specializing in the area of ​​quantum mysticism. He was born in New Dheli, India. Currently lives in La Jolla, California, United States. Chopra was a student from a family that managed to assure him an acceptable education, knowing that in his city and in general in India the situation of poverty, inequality, and illiteracy is great.

So, after graduating with good grades, he began studying medicine at the public university in his city. When finishing his study he decided to look for better horizons outside his country. So, he traveled to the United States, at first it was not easy to get a job, although he spoke English, the culture shock was hard. But after a few months, he got a job and was promoted in a short time. He became director of the New England Memorial Hospital and was also a professor at Boston University. Stress and long working hours led him little by little to go to the cigarette and drink.

Chopra had to live a great battle against these addictions that were affecting his personal, emotional, physical and work life. Therefore, he began to return to the foundations of natural medicine learned in his homeland. Improvements began to emerge in his life. So he felt the need to divulge the principles of spiritual health, in which the mind plays a fundamental role. However, Chopra’s ideas have been controversial. He has been accused of a charlatan for not having proof of the effectiveness of his methods.

He has also been accused by some people who have taken workshops at his Chopra Center in La Jolla, California for fraud because they say they did not feel any change after this. But, undoubtedly, this center is very popular and constantly hosts an impressive number of patients from various parts of the world. Sometime later, new comments were raised against him, he was accused of plagiarism in several books, selling prescription drugs and even being seen in brothels. Actually, it was mostly a smear campaign.

But the accusations did not matter to Chopra and his readers. His followers have defended him staunchly because they feel in him a guide, protection and a wise word at the right time. His books have also managed to be sold in various parts of the world and each and everyone is qualified as successful. The best sellers lately have been: Bodies without age, minds without time, Quantum healing, The seven spiritual laws of success, Twin Souls and Sincrodestino, one of the best sellers in Colombia.

In his new book, he explains that coincidences have a great power to change the course of life. Chopra ensures that the destination can be determined to achieve what is desired. In other words, coincidences are messages that come to us to route us better in life. In his book, he gives readers several tips on how to take advantage of coincidences in each one’s life. For this Indian doctor, destiny is the progressive realization of one’s goals. Chopra speaks to his followers of the need to connect with the creativity of the Universe, his ability to have compassion, achieve the purposes and love in life.

Now, for Chopra and his approaches meditation is the key and the way to find the answer to many things. Listening to your inner voice and acting according to it is one of the great tasks. At the moment in which a person’s mind achieved this, it is escaping from various emotional problems such as depression, despair, lack of meaning, among others. One of the methods by which Chopra is recognized is by his use of confrontation, in his texts and talks he is always asking questions, which undoubtedly place the person in a complicated position.

One of his most outstanding books is Golf, in this book he clarifies how important it is to understand the spirit of this game since to execute it and obtain the desired objective you must use the coordination of the body and mind. Chopra accepted an interview by the Colombian newspaper El Tiempo, where he gave a vision based on his experience and knowledge of the Colombian situation. He said it was necessary that every citizen find happiness to improve so many problems. Finding that way will guarantee success.

Chopra is one of the Indians with the most published books, he has almost 40 and they are all successful, a great number have been Best Sellers. He is one of the most outstanding characters in topics of spirituality and the power of the mind in medical healing. His influence is marked by the teachings of traditional Indian scriptures such as Ayurveda, the traditional current of Hindu healing, the Vedān ta and the Bhagavad Gita. This is expressed in each of his interviews, we also know that he is a follower of Jiddu Krishnamurti.

Among Chopra’s detractors are famous scientists and doctors such as biologist Jerry Coyne, theoretical physicist, and cosmologist Lawrence Krauss, evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins, David Gorski, Dr. Stephen Barrett, Michael Shermer, neurologist Steven Novella, PZ Myers, the medical consultant Gerald C. Zumwalt, among others.

Time magazine chose him among the 100 icons and heroes of the 20th century and was baptized as the prophet-poet of alternative medicine. Many of his books are translated into 35 languages; in English, more than 12 million copies have been sold.

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Daniel Bernoulli

Daniel Bernoulli biography
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Daniel Bernoulli biography

Daniel Bernoulli (January 29, 1700 – March 17, 1782) mathematician, statistician, physicist, and physician. He was born in Groningen, Holland. His father, Johann Bernoulli, was a researcher who made important contributions to the early development of calculus. The family had to flee to the Netherlands due to the persecution of the Huguenots. After a brief period in Frankfurt, they settled in Basel, Switzerland. Bernoulli was always a very intelligent and curious young man. In high school, he achieved notable qualifications and mastered three languages, upon graduation he entered the university to study medicine and obtained his degree in 1721 thanks to his thesis on breathing where he assumed the mechanistic approach that prevailed at the time and was closer of his intellectual inclinations.

As soon as he graduated he tried to enter as a professor at the University of Basel but was rejected. Subsequently, Daniel was invited to work at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, as a professor of mathematics. In this place, he met the great mathematician Leonhard Euler and then became his collaborator. He corresponded with the Prussian mathematician Christian Goldbach, most of the correspondence was about the lessons learned with his father, dazzled by the level of Bernoulli, decided to publish the letters written by Daniel.

From 1731 he began research on the problems of life and health from the statistics. Two years later he returned to Basel where he served as professor of anatomy, botany, philosophy, and physics. Simultaneously, he advanced important hydrodynamic studies, for Bernoulli this was one of the most important properties of fluid flow, pressure, density, and velocity.

From these studies arose The Bernoulli Principle or the Dynamic Theory of fluids. In his theory, he gave a masterly explanation about the pressure of the gas on the walls of a container. Because of the above, he obtained a remarkable amount of prizes and recognition between 1725 and 1749. He also obtained many more for his studies in astronomy, gravity, tides, magnetism, ocean currents and the behavior of a boat in the sea. It is notorious that he maintained a bad relationship with his father from 1734, the year in which both shared the annual prize of the Academy of Sciences of Paris.

Johann came to expel him from his home and also published a book called Hydraulica in which he tried to attribute the discoveries of his son in this matter. His popularity and intelligence earned him a place at the University of Basel, in the chair that his father had occupied. During this period as a professor, he published 86 papers and won 10 prizes from the Paris Academy of Sciences. Later he was a member of the Royal Society from May 3, 1750. He always thought a lot about students who could not access education due to lack of resources, for that reason he advanced the construction of a pension for the shelter of students without resources, This was maintained until the end of his days with his money. In addition, while he was rector of the University of Basel, in 1744 and 1756.

He was very committed to the development of the University. He made monetary donations on several occasions for laboratory equipment and acquisition of new titles in the Library. His prestige grew considerably both as a lecturer in Theoretical Physics and especially for his uncommon classes of Experimental Physics. Normally his conferences were attended by more than one hundred participants, from different corners of Europe.

He is considered one of the precursors of the kinetic theory of gases. He proposed a model of the structure of gases, in which he assumed that atoms in continuous motion collided with each other and with the walls of the container that contains them; that approach was the starting point of the kinetic theory of gases. Bernoulli also analyzed the problem of analyzing the errors in the observations. Bernoulli showed the insufficiency of the reasoning handled at that time and advised to use a method that can be considered an antecedent to the method of least squares reformulated later by Gauss.

At present, and based on the studies of his texts, it is noticed that he was able to find in the Mathematical Analysis the means to extract from the calculations all the details of the phenomena. Daniel Bernoulli suffered a cardiac arrest on March 17, 1782, in Basel, this episode did not allow him to stay alive. At his funeral he was dismissed by hundreds of colleagues and relatives at a solemn ceremony of the Academy of Sciences of Paris organized by the philosopher and geometer Marqués de Condorcet, who then served as Perpetual Secretary, he also read a funeral eulogy that collects the merits of his work and also his characteristics as a true man of science.

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William Harvey

William Harvey biography
Portrait of William Harvey (1578 - 1657) - Wellcome Images

William Harvey biography

William Harvey (April 1, 1578 – June 3, 1657) English physician, embryologist, and physiologist. William was born in the city of Folkestone, England. He started his basic studies at the Grammar School in Canterbury at the age of 10. Later, he moved to Caius College, where he began to experience a passion for science, from there he decided to direct his life towards science. By 1590, Harvey began his studies at Cambridge, where in spite of the difficulties he managed to finish his medical career. He traveled to Italy to study at the medical school of Padua, considered one of the best in Europe. In Padua he met Professor Fabrizio, who encouraged him, even more, to develop the field of embryology and physiology, spending long hours observing the anatomical findings that were decisive in his orientation.

Upon returning to his country of origin, he obtained the necessary documentation to practice the medical profession in 1604 and entered the Royal College of London. Years later, love knocks on his door, when meeting the beautiful and intelligent daughter of the personal physician of King James I, Elizabeth Browne, in a matter of months they decided to marry. This union not only brought him happiness but many benefits in his medical life, he entered as a resident in the hospital of San Bartolomé, where he could deploy all the research they had in mind since his university.

Later, William Harvey exercised his role as a professor of anatomy and surgery, causing amazement and admiration among his pupils. On April 17, 1618, Harvey delivered his first and famous speech on the circulation of blood, that conference caused the effect of a bomb in the scientific world. The students were interested in the revolutionary theory of this scientist and teacher of 40 years. The majority of the doctors of that time embraced, in effect, the theories of Galen which, in relation to circulation, were no longer valid. Harvey demonstrated this affirmation with exact proofs.

At the same time in 1618 Dr. Harvey was assigned to James I’s personal physician and, decades later, Carlos I appointed him a chamber doctor, and in the civil war he entrusted him with the care of his children. Because of the great loyalty that the king had, he decided to accompany him on his retreat to Oxford. In times of instability, the monarchy suffered government persecution during the Cromwell Protectorate.

“Those who are at war with others are not at peace with themselves.” William Harvey

The publication of his work Anatomica de Motu Cordis in 1628, generated a turning point in the history of medicine. As it collapsed the conceptions and postulates of Greek philosophy and gave the entrance to a way of conceiving science, no longer from mere supposition but from experience. As for the scientific work of Harvey, it is necessary to emphasize the primordial aspects: the description of the blood circulation and his embryological doctrines. The work quickly became famous throughout the European continent, although it engendered a strong controversy, of which William Harvey remained on the sidelines.

In 1642, William Harvey moved to the United Kingdom to practice as a professor at Merton College. Until the time of conception of embryology, degrees that describe the process of fertilization of these living beings, and publication finally in 1652.

The advances of Harvey contain great importance because they reject the then unquestionable orthodox theory on the blood circulation of Claudius Galen, inherited from Aristotle. For example, his work Anatomical Exercise concerning the movement of the heart and blood in animals was a classic of science and even today, it is studied to understand the advance of medicine. It exhibits a correct model of blood circulation, explaining the role of valves, the heart, the processes of sucking and pumping blood, the mechanism of exchange between blood and oxygenated blood. This contrasted with the orthodox concept that blood was constantly produced in the liver and consumed in the body. Galen focused on thinking about what was happening. Harvey, on the contrary, focused on checking, carrying out dissections, what happened.

Another one of the contributions of Harvey was to affirm that the valves of the vein prevent that the blood advances in another sense that is not towards the heart, and it is demonstrated mathematically, following Galileo, the reality of the closed economy. He measured the capacity of the heart and found that the sum of blood pushed into the body by each element of two ounces. He concluded that the blood always travels along the same route and returns to its starting point, this process being infinite. His investigations, born of authentic experiments, not imagined at the time. We can say with justice that the discovery of the circulation was the first adjusted explanation of an organic process and the starting point towards experimental physiology.

In his advanced age, he was named the president of the College of Physicians, but William did not accept the position due to his delicate state of health. Harvey died at age 80 in Roehampton, London on June 3, 1657.

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