Plato probably was born in Athens or in Aegina in 427 b.C. and died in Athens in 347 b.C. He was an apprentice philosopher of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle. He is recognized for his dialogues, in which he talks about philosophy, metaphysics, epistemology, ontology, ethics, politics, art, and many other topics.
Plato was the son of Ariston and was born in the midst of an aristocratic family, in which some members had usurped the power of Athens after the Peloponnesian War. That is why, despite belonging to the oligarchy, Plato on several occasions showed his rejection of the government that Athens had at that time. This could be seen in his Political, Law and Republic works.
Speusippos, his nephew, who talks about Plato’s early mental agility, talks about his childhood and adolescence. He also says that at first, the philosopher wanted to be an artist and that he was very interested in painting, drama, and poetry, and that he even wanted to write tragedies; but all this changed when Plato began to attend the meetings given by Socrates. And this interest in art quickly changed to a hatred towards them, to the point of promoting, in the construction of their Ideal State, the expulsion of poets.
It is known that, on the other hand, Plato dedicated himself to sports, to corporal exercise and above all to athletic practices and gymnastics. In fact, it has come to be known that “Plato” was not his real name, but Aristocles, and that “Plato” was actually a nickname his gym teacher had given him because of his broad back. Some even believe that he was hunchbacked and that he fought in the Peloponnesian War and in the War of Corinth.
“A man who does not risk anything for his ideas, or his ideas are not worth anything, or man is worth nothing.” Plato
For his part, Aristotle tells that before listening to Socrates, Plato had met Cratylus, who had introduced him in the old discussion of whether the thought is totally empirical or totally rational, inclining it for the first. However, Socrates would have made him change his mind by leading him to define first everything that he wanted to talk about. For this reason, he came to the idea that before the sensible world, there was a reality that could only be known but not experienced, and from this arose his theory of the world of ideas, where the archetypes of each element of the empirical world exist.
On his approach to Socrates, Diogenes Laertius and W. K. C. Guthrie differ. The first believed that Plato met Socrates when he was twenty years old; the second think that he had known him for a long time when he was even fifteen years old. Of both can be rescued then that the first encounter happened between 412 b.C. and 407 b.C. and since then Plato was a staunch disciple and a great friend of Socrates. While there is a discussion about their first meeting, there is also discussion about the last one. The reason for this ambiguity lies in two books by Plato.
In the first, Apologia, narrates that Socrates, while he was convicted for offending the Greek gods and for corrupting the youth, pointed out among the public he believed them his only friends, among whom was Plato. However, in the second, Phaedom, says, through one of his characters, that he himself, Plato, had not been able to go to the trial of Socrates for being sick. On the latter, several hypotheses have been thrown, some accusing Plato of not being as much a friend of Socrates as was thought, but this judgment would not be in relation to the affection shown in all his work. One of the most accepted hypotheses is that perhaps Plato was not because he did not resist the idea of seeing Socrates being judged and punished.
After Socrates died, Plato traveled with some colleagues to Megara, Egypt, Italy and Sicily, where he met different thinkers who would influence their thinking, as is the case of the Pythagoreans, from whom he learned concepts such as harmony; or Parmenides, from which he could develop his idea of soul; or Anaxagoras, from whom he shared the idea that reason flooded everything that existed. Then he returned and bought a property in the vicinity of Athens, where he founded his Academy, through which great thinkers would pass and who would be in service until 529 b.C. Here Plato would share his knowledge until his death in 347 b.C. when he was about eighty.
“All Western philosophy is reduced to a series of notes written in the margin of the pages of Plato.” Alfred North Whitehead
His work can be divided into four moments, responding to the time when he conceived them. The first moment responds to his first dialogues, strongly determined by Socratic thought. In them, we can find Apology, Ion, Crito, Protagoras, Laques, Lysis, Eutifrón, among others. The second moment is determined by his political position and by the first glimpses he made of his theory of ideas. Here we can find works like Gorgias, Euthydemus, Hippias Minor, Crattilo, Menexeno, and Menón, among several others. The third moment is when the theory of ideas and the thought according to which knowledge is remembering is already formed. Typical works of this stage are Fedro, Fedón, República and El Banquete. Finally, the fourth moment is an evaluation that Plato makes about his own ideas, where we find Theaetetus, Parmenides, Politician, Philebus, Sophist, Laws, Timaeus, etc.
Football or Soccer history
Although we want to go back to the History of Soccer, we must bear in mind that its roots and rules were not typical of the sport we know today.
Being Xeng-T emperor, in the 5th century, he forced the soldiers to play a ball game known as Tsú-Shú; meaning Tsú: kick and Shú: ball.
In the 2nd century b.C. in China, a game was held that consisted of disputing the ball vigorously with the rivals, and then, with the use of the feet and hands, passing the ball over a cord held by two posts, which today we know as “goal.”
In these times it is when the raw leather is wrapped in several roots; giving birth to the leather ball. Its inventor was FU-HI. It was used in the Chinese dynasty then, as training in the military fields. Even when a soldier violated the code, he was forced to dominate the ball without dropping it, if so, his punishment was dropped.
A century later, in Egypt, the ball game is performed as a fertility ritual. This game is adopted by its neighboring towns India and Persia, obtaining the ball as the object of the game.
We can also find in America how the Aztecs practiced for years the game called Tlachitli, which was a mix between tennis, football and basketball. In the game the use of the hands was prohibited and the losing team captain was sacrificed as part of the game.
In 1855 Charles Goodyear built and patented the first soccer ball which consisted of a rudimentary vulcanized rubber ball.
However, if we want to talk about the History of Soccer per se, we should talk about how the Football Association was founded in England in 1863, thus being the first governing body of that sport. Stipulating from there the rules and style of play of what is today the most famous sport in the world.
In the year of 1900, Soccer is included in the Olympic Games and recognized as such. Later in 1902 Argentina and Uruguay meet in the first International match outside the British Isles.
In 1904, FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) was founded in Paris, France. Who from that moment was dedicated to regulate and organize the meetings worldwide.
Japanese anime or animation emerged at the beginning of the 20th century influenced by animation and the world of cinema developed in the United States, later it was modified and claimed Japanese culture. The anime-style as we know it began to develop in the late 1950s, when the production company Toei Studios and the different series based on short sleeves or cartoons, such as Tetsuwan Atomu, also known as Astro Boy. From the 1980s and 1990s, the anime became popular, appearing large cult series such as Dragon Ball, Neon Genesis Evangelion, Sailor Moon, Detective Conan, Rurouni Kenshin, and Cowboy Bebop, among others. In the new millennium, the Japanese animated industry has been booming, providing new content every season based on successful manga, light novels, video games, and music.
The first Japanese animations were small short films developed at the end of the 1910s, largely inspired by American animation, in these, folk and comic themes were addressed. The first short film was Namakura Gatana by Junichi Kouchi, it was two minutes long, the story told the story of a man with his katana (Japanese sword or saber). In the following decade, the duration of the short films was extended to ten or fifteen minutes, in which typical oriental tales were represented. Among the pioneer artists of this era are Oten Shimokawa, Junichi Kouchi, Seitaro Kitayama and Sanae Yamamoto; by this time the short film Obasuteyama (The Mountain Where Old Women Are Abandoned) by Yamamoto was published.
During the 30s and 40s, the Japanese animated industry went through a series of changes, the stories were neglected and western stories were taken into account. A short time later the anime Norakuro (1934) of Mituyo Seo, one of the first animations based on a manga. Since then this became a frequent practice. By the end of the 1930s, World War II broke out, a warlike confrontation in which Japan was involved as a member of the Axis powers, at which time the animations became war propaganda. At the end of the war, the country was occupied by the allied powers led by the United States, which seriously affected the country that was going through a deep economic crisis.
Industry development and international boom
In the course of the crisis, the manga and anime industry became popular in the country, thus establishing the basis for the development of the own animated style that occurred around the middle of the 20th century. It was around this time that Toei Studios, an animation film producer, emerged as one of the key figures in the history of anime. This company was a pioneer in the animation of Japan, provided various productions that allowed the advancement of animation in the country. The company’s first animation was Koneko no rakugaki, a short thirteen-minute film published in 1957. The following decade the company grew by focusing on the development of feature films. Other companies such as Mushi Pro, a producer that made the animation of Tetsuwan Atomu (Astro Boy) by Osamu Tezuka, mangaka and animator, one of the most relevant artists of the Japanese animated industry of the 20th century.
Between the 1960s and 1970s, the anime of robots (mecha) became popular appearing iconic series such as Tetsujin 28-gō and Mazinger Z or Gundam, for this same period the popular Doraemon series (1973), based on the homonymous anime, began to air Fujiko Fujio, a series that tells the story of a cosmic robot cat that has attached to its body a bag from which it subtracts various artifacts which are used in the adventures of Doraemon and his human friend Nobita. In the 1980s and 1990s, Japanese animation boomed internationally, which led to many series beginning to dub into English and Spanish, in these years cult series such as Dragon Ball, based on the manga of Akira Toriyama. Saint Seiya also known as The Knights of the Zodiac, Captain Tsubasa, exported as Super champions; Rurouni Kenshin, known in the west as Samurai X, Neon Genesis Evangelion of Hideaki Anno; Pokémon, Ranma ½, and Sakura Card Captor, among others.
In 2000, the already booming anime is largely massified by the acceptance and the huge fan base that it had acquired at the time, these followers known as otakus, boosted the Japanese animated industry. Since then there have been numerous animated productions that have been distributed worldwide, among the most prominent series of the new millennium are One Piece, Naruto, Bleach, Fullmetal Alchemist, Inuyasha, Yu-Gi-Oh, Rozen Maiden, Kuroshitsuji, and Death Note, all are ace based on sleeves that when becoming successful, allowed the development of the animated series.
At present, any manga that has a large number of followers is very likely to have adapted in an animated series, such as Hunter x Hunter, Pandora Hearts, Ao no Exorcist, Mirai Nikki, Bakuman and Shingeki no Kyojin, among many others, light novels have been adapted that have become popular as Durarara!!, Boku wa Tomodachi ga Sukunai, Sword Art Online, and My Youth Romantic Comedy Is Wrong, As I Expected, among others. In recent years, the Yaoi and Yuri genres have been popularized in which romantic relationships between people of the same sex are addressed, among these series it is possible to rescue Junjō Romantica, Sekaiichi Hatsukoi, No. 6, Aoi Hana, Sasameki Koto and Yagate Kimi ni Naru
At present, the Japanese animated industry produces numerous series, ova, and films per year, becoming one of the strongest industries in the world of animation. Among the most prominent people in this industry is Hayao Miyazaki, founder of Studio Ghibli, a studio where films such as My Neighbor Totoro, The Incredible Vagabond Castle, The Journey of Chihiro, and Ponyo, among others, likewise, stand out in the present, artist Makoto Shinkai, creator of 5 centimeters per second, Hoshi Wo Ou Kodomo, Kotonoha no Niwa and Kimi no Na Wa.
Star Wars History
Star Wars is a series of films by American film director George Lucas and produced and distributed by The Walt Disney Company as of 2012. Director George Lucas was a promising filmmaker who had just finished the American Graffiti movie and began collecting ideas for a new project, which he titled The Star Wars. Thanks to its good name, The Star Wars was full of good omens.
This film contained a beginning, knot, and end, indicating that it was a closed film. But, for the year 1980, the Empire struck back, which indicated that there would be more sequels. In that sense, the first film was assigned the final title of Star Wars: Episode IV: A New Hope. The plot of the tape focused on a galaxy far away, there was an oppressive empire, hunting interstellar rewards, all this with the drama of a kidnapped princess and a stubborn young man, without parents, called Luke Skywalker.
Lucas made the film because his budget was below 10 million dollars. All these inconveniences affected the cast, although they were always enthusiastic, during filming. The actor Harrison Ford was a great record for the success of this film.
Star Wars reached immediate popularity. It was really surprising since few films contained that level of special effects and it was practically the first film that was characterized by its deliberately sensationalist attitude. There were legendary rows all over the block to enter. Many critics claim that these films have been well received because they knew how to spread the current economic model of the embraced film industry among young men, enthusiastic about the special effects and images of the comics.
Total production has raised some 2.2 billion dollars nationally and 4.5 billion dollars internationally. The phantom menace is a box office leader, has generated almost 1,000 million dollars.
The popularity of the tape has allowed the commercialization of a large number of items, souvenirs, garments, among others and with this, they have earned more than 20,000 million dollars. Lucas has maintained the commercialization of the film and this money has allowed him to expand his Industrial Light and Magic special effects workshop and will create a whole mini-industry in North Carolina. In 2012, Disney bought Lucasfilm.
Luke Skywalker: He is the star of Star Wars. Hero of the trilogy, he is presented as the savior of the universe, a young lonely farmer descended from the galactic nobility.
Darth Vader: A villain who has a very pronounced physique, of great stature. It succumbs to the dark side and the side of the Emperor seeks to dominate the Galactic Empire. He confronts Luke, who knows after he is his son, after a while, he discovers a little goodness within himself. Before being Vader is Anakin Skywalker, as the Chosen One, his mission was to bring balance to the Force.
Princess Leia Organa: Political leader and supporter of the rebels. She is an Alderaan princess. It is characterized by having an inflexible character. She is captured by the evil Darth Vader and had to see her planet in chaos and destruction. She is romantically involved with Han Solo. It also turns out to be Vader’s daughter.
Han Solo: played by actor Harrison Ford. In the film, he plays the adventurous pilot of the Millennium Falcon ship, who is involved in the rebel cause. Thanks to his effort, Luke’s life is safe, and therefore he assumes the responsibility of being a military leader. He stays with Princess Leia. A hairy Wookie, Chewbacca, is his co-pilot and right hand.
Obi-Wan Kenobi: A wise man who takes care of Lucas. Die at the hands of Vader. In the previous chronology, it is a veteran of the Clone War who is an instructor of Anakin Skywalker before he leans over the dark side.
R2-D2: It is an aeromechanical robot, companion of C-3PO, an android whose function is to serve humans. Both have a presence in all films.
Yoda: A famous Jedi Master who instructs the inexperienced Luke Skywalker in the ways of the Force. He can reverse syntax.
Jar Jar Binks: It’s a soft-eared Gungan that has a Caribbean accent and isn’t much loved by fans. As a politician in the Galactic Senate, it helps put the galaxy on the road to ruin.
Boba Fett: Warrior and bounty hunter. One of the most important rewards he won was for the capture of Han Solo. It ends in the belly of a beast. Fans have ensured that he is one of the favorite characters of the fans despite not being the main character.
Emperor Palpatine: Follower of the dark side and Senator Naboo who maintains his identity as Darth Sidious, this has been used to build his power.
- Star Wars (1977)
- The Empire Strikes Back (1980)
- The Return of the Jedi (1983)
- The Phantom Menace (1999)
- The Attack of the Clones (2002)
- Revenge of the Sith (2005).
- We must indicate that the three prequels were not as successful among fans and critics as the original trilogy.
- The phantom menace
- Attack of the clone
- Revenge of the Sith
- A new hope:
- The Empire Strikes Back
- The return of the Jedi
THE AWAKENING OF THE FORCE
It was announced on October 2012 when Disney bought Lucasfilm. The script is attributed to J.J. Abrams and Lawrence Kasdan and the director was Abrams. The plot takes place 30 years after The Return of the Jedi. Luke, Han, and Leia were the characters that entered the original trilogy. The Force Awakens will be released in more than 41,000 cinemas in North America, including 392 IMAX screens. It is expected to exceed the current record, set this year by Jurassic World. That movie collected 208.8 million in the first weekend.
Spotify is a multiplatform application of Swedish origin created in the mid-first decade of 2000 by web designer and entrepreneur Daniel Ek. It began its history as an application for computers in 2008 and a year later presented the mobile and dynamic version for smartphones. After signing a contract with numerous record labels such as Sony BMG, Hollywood Records, Warner Music, and Universal Music, among others, Spotify launched into the conquest of the music world by expanding its business and including services such as access to specialized magazines and other related applications. With the musical field.
Consolidated as one of the most important applications in the music industry, Spotify has managed to connect with its users maintaining the freemium model (free and paid) and facilitating its use through alliances with important social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, etc.)
DANIEL EK AND THE SPOTIFY BEGINNINGS
After starting his career as an entrepreneur at age fourteen, Daniel Ek, creator of Spotify began a new bet in the online marketing business with Advertigo (2005), a company that he successfully managed until its sale to the international giant Tradedoubler in 2006. It was at that time when the Spotify project began to take shape with the support of Martin Lorentzon, founder of Tradedoubler. Ek quickly convinced Lorentzon of the potential of his new project and this without hesitation gave his investment for the application to be created. While discussing the name of the new project, Lorentzon, and Ek, they stayed with Spotify, because their sound and meaning pleased them (spot: place – identify: identity).
Once the name was chosen, Ek and Lorentzon, registered the brand and began working on the project with the support of a group of designers and engineers, including uTorrent developer and creator, Ludvig Strigeus. After a few months of work the application was completed in 2006, however, its launch was postponed due to negotiations with the record companies and the licensing, so it took two years to launch the application.
Spotify was launched on October 7, 2008, as a streaming music playback application for computers, available at that time only in some European countries such as Finland, Sweden, Norway, United Kingdom, Spain, and France. Since then users could access an extensive music library without downloading anything. At that time the application had its well-known free account, however, it could only be accessed if invited, otherwise, a paid subscription would have to be made. By changing times and with the emergence of smartphones, Spotify understood the need to expand and reinvent itself, building its mobile application in 2009, in addition to the Premium and Unlimited modes.
GROWTH AND CONSOLIDATION
After gaining popularity in a few years and becoming one of the most used new applications, Spotify landed in the US market, signing a contract with important record labels, which understood the importance of being in the app and the potential it had to spread to Your artists In 2011, it was established in the United States and began to compete with recognized and important music applications such as iTunes, which it has currently surpassed in number of active users, Amazon Music, Pandora and the newly created Tidal (2014). Shortly after starting his adventure in the United States, Ek announced that the application would change and diversify by becoming a platform that could host various applications related to the world of music, because as he pointed out: Music goes beyond of the music.
Since then the application has become multiplatform in which third-party applications such as TuneWiki (letters), CrowdAlbum (photography) and Billboard (lists and charts) are included, among many others. Also, several extensions and options were created that personalize the use of the app, so that each user can enjoy and explore the world of music in the app in the way they like.
For this same period, the platform surprised users with the integration of specialized channels and magazines such as Rolling Stone, Moi, and others that jumped to the platform pleasing users with a variety of music lists for all tastes. Three years after becoming a platform, Spotify eliminated the limit of hours of listening for free users, including short advertisements that cannot be skipped. That same year, the app opted for marketing, sales and user experience by partnering with Topspin and Starbucks, being the first music app that has space in places like cafes.
After consolidating itself as one of the most-used apps of recent times, Spotify created various alliances with social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, among others, allowing its users to access the app and share its content in various ways, thus improving the user experience.
Since 2016, the app has managed to connect with its users through various lists designed for all kinds of tastes, with which users can discover new artists, new songs, the most listened to songs and others that they had forgotten. Some of the most listened to lists are Discover Weekly, Billboard Hot 100, Hipster International, Digster HIP HOP HITS !, Billboard R & B / Hip-Hop Songs, Top Trap Latino, among others. However, it should be ruled out that the different extensions that the app currently has facilitated and personalize its use, improving the user experience. Some of the most important extensions are Forgotify, The Set Listener and Vidfish.
The success achieved with the renewal of the application led its creator to think about expanding further entering the stock market in 2018 with a market value of $ 26.5 billion. Since then, the app has not stopped growing and innovating, improving the user experience and consolidating itself as one of the most important apps of the moment. Facing tough opponents like Tidal, Pandora, and iTunes, in addition to the voices that announce their downfall. Currently, Spotify has more than 207 million users and it is available in 65 countries in Europe, America, Asia, and Oceania.
Huawei (1987) Chinese high-tech private multinational company. Ren Zhengfei is its founder. It is headquartered in Shenzhen, Canton Province, People’s Republic of China. The company was born with an investment of only $5,600. The company started as a telecommunications operator. Twenty years ago, the first mobile device was launched and from then on they have created several cell phones.
Huawei is the third-largest smartphone company globally in 2016, its revenues reached $ 75.1 billion. Huawei is the only Chinese company in the top 50 that has a high Research and Development rate. Thanks to innovation, Huawei managed to market more than 100 million mobile devices in 12 months.
One of the reasons for success is its continuous change of CEO. The position is managed by three senior executives, who promote collective leadership. Also, employees are owners. Zhenfei owns only 1.4% of the shares, the rest of the shares are distributed among employees. So, Huawei combines a high investment in R&D and decentralized management.
According to Forbes, the Chinese company is one of the most valuable brands of 2017 and occupies the 88th place, with a brand value of 7.3 billion dollars. Another ranking to highlight is the Fortune 500, Huawei is ranked 83 in this ranking. Recently, the Huawei Mate 10 Pro has been chosen as the best cell phone of the year 2017. Huawei Mate 10 Pro managed to overcome several cell phones for its features and functions. It has a Kirin 970 processor, the first chip with artificial intelligence is the exclusive property of the company. This processor seeks to optimize system resources, ensure more efficient battery consumption, recognize images or offer real-time responses.
Thus, Huawei has become a reference in the technological world and the Smartphone. This year there have been several launches of new devices, which aim to meet the high expectations of consumers.
UNITED STATES AGAINST HUAWEI
The panic has spread to millions of Huawei cell phone owners who are going through a moment of uncertainty after the announcement issued by Google that indicates they will not continue providing their software to the Chinese company, on the express orders of the president of the United States. This is part of a so-called Cold War of telecommunications: Huawei was included in the US blacklist considering it as a danger to society.
So, the executive order issued by the president of the United States, Donald Trump is: do not sell component or software to Huawei. At the moment, Google is working on the details and implications of such an act and will continue to offer the Android experience without restrictions, including access to the Google app store. In the short term, Huawei seeks to support users’ applications and operating systems.
Huawei said they work on their operating system, based on a public version of Android and is already available in the Chinese market (cell phones use a highly modified Android system and do not have Google applications). The next generation of phones is expected to have this operating system. This could have a great impact because users tend to lean towards the operating system rather than the brand of the phone when buying. It will take an incredible device that surplus the services of Google Maps, Google Mail, Google Chrome and other Google Play apps. But, the challenge can be positive.
- Huawei P8 Lite
- Huawei P8 Lite 2017
- Huawei P9
- Huawei P30
- Huawei P30 pro
- Huawei P30 Lite
- Huawei Mate X
- Huawei P20 Pro
- Huawei Y7 2018
- Huawei Y9 2018
- Huawei Y9 2019
- Huawei Mate 20 Lite
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