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Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget biography
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Jean Piaget biography

Jean William Fritz Piaget (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) epistemologist, psychologist, and biologist. He was born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Jean Piaget, as he is better known, is considered the father of genetic epistemology, his contributions to the study of childhood are remarkable. He is the creator of the constructivist theory of the development of knowledge. His father, Arthur Piaget, professor of medieval literature at the University of Neuchâtel, and his mother Rebecca Jackson lived on the profits of the first steel crucible factory in France, this was created by his father.

Since childhood, he was very curious and developed an early interest in biology and the natural world, especially in the marine world. At age 11, he wrote a study on a species of albino sparrow and then wrote a treatise on malacology some years later. After graduating from high school, he completed a bachelor’s degree and then a doctorate in natural sciences at the University of Neuchâtel in 1918, with a thesis on mollusks in the canton of Valais. Before going to Paris in 1919 he worked at the University of Zurich, where he published two papers on Psychology.

From that moment his interest in psychoanalysis was born, he was a follower of figures such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung. And while he was in a Psychoanalysis Congress in Berlin in 1922 he was analyzed by Sabina Spielrein. Later he had the opportunity to meet Freud. He was a collaborator of Alfred Binet in several psychological institutions of Zurich and Paris, simultaneously began the development of his theory on the nature of knowledge. Since he became a father, he decided to study the growth of his children, to build a theory of sensorimotor intelligence.

From these observations emerged several studies on child psychology, based primarily on the spontaneous development of practical intelligence. Piaget said that the principles of logic begin to develop before the language and are generated by the sensory and motor actions of the baby while interacting with the environment. Piaget formulated a series of stages that give the development of intelligence: sensory-motor intelligence or practice, intuitive intelligence, concrete intellectual operations, and finally abstract intellectual operations. Piaget established, for each of these stages, the corresponding ages. But later studies showed that it is not necessary to make such delimitations rigidly.

Piaget was criticized, but also admired because he ruled out biological maturation or mere environmental influence as the only conditioning factors of such development. Its conception tries to harmonize in a coherent theory the neurobiological growth and the influence of the social and cultural life with the development of the intelligence, affirming that such phenomena are in a state of interrelation. He moved away from several ideas of Sigmund Freud and psychoanalysis, focused on the sexual development of the child and their affective relationships with parents as key factors in the formation of personality, also moved away from some conceptions of the behaviorism of John B. Watson or BF Skinner.

Piaget also studied the moral development of the child, affirming that moral autonomy is acquired around seven years. He explained that later, the child is subjected to so-called pressure relationships by adults, who impose their rules and mandates with the threat of punishment; It is the moral call of obligation. After this stage comes, the stage of moral reciprocity: the imposed duty is supplanted by the acceptance of norms that are recognized as good; then the sense of good and responsibility emerges.

The many studies of Piaget were reflected in a huge written production that includes a large number of articles and books. We will mention some of his works: Language and thought in the child (1923), The representation of the world in the child (1926), The birth of intelligence in the child (1936), The psychology of intelligence (1947), Treaty of logic (1949), Introduction to genetic epistemology (1950), Six studies of psychology (1964), Memory and intelligence (1968) and The development of thought (1975).

Jean Piaget was one of the most important and influential psychologists in the advancement of this discipline. He has an important position in contemporary psychology and, without a doubt, also in the field of child psychology; He has been one of the intellectuals who has rigorously detailed the maturational process that takes place between birth and adolescence. Clearly, his studies and analysis influenced figures of child psychology such as Henri Wallon, and even psychoanalytic theorists such as Erik Erikson. His studies opened the focus to new orientations in evolutionary psychology and the pedagogy. For example, Jerome Bruner’s learning models, David Ausubel’s theory of meaningful learning and Albert Bandura’s theory of social learning.

His contributions were recognized at the universities of Harvard, Paris, Brussels and Rio de Janeiro, which awarded him the title of doctor honoris causa. However, at the University of Lausanne, he was also honored, he was a professor and editor of renowned scientific publications, he was director of the International Office of Education, an international organization that in 1969 would become part of UNESCO. He was also General Secretary of the International Union of Psychological Science. Until the day of his death, September 16, 1980, he was the director of the International Center for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva, founded by him in 1955.

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Doctor

Willem Einthoven

Willem Einthoven Biography
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Willem Einthoven Biography

Willem Einthoven (May 21, 1860 – September 28, 1927) Physiologist and physician. Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1924. He was born in Semarang, Indonesia. He is well known for his contributions to the development of the electrocardiograph and its clinical application. His father died when they lived in Java, so Willem moved to the University of Utrecht to study medicine.

After finishing his studies he obtained the position of professor at the University of Leiden to deal with the positions of physiology and histology. He took the opportunity to advance an important work in the field of research. He quickly showed himself as a reputable scientist, participated in numerous international scientific forums and the best thing is that by managing several languages ​​he could communicate his ideas faithfully without the need for translators.

For several years he experimented with the rope galvanometer and its utility for the registration of cardiac potentials, and the results obtained were published in an article in the year 1901. Five years later, he masterfully described the clinical applications of the electrocardiogram in Telecardiogramme (1906). After that, he published another article that laid the foundations for the development of this important tool in cardiology analysis. His investigative work was carried out simultaneously with his work as a professor.

Thanks to his work, the galvanometer was used to measure the differences in electrical potential during systolic and diastolic heart contractions and reproduce them graphically. This procedure is known as an electrocardiogram.

Later, he was interested in analyzing how healthy hearts worked and then defining a reference frame, through which attention was paid to the deviations caused by the disease. To sum up, he revolutionized the study, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac pathologies. In his honor, the lunar crater Einthoven bears his name.

 

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Lucy Wills

Lucy Wills Biography
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Lucy Wills Biography

Lucy Wills (May 10, 1888 – 1964) hematologist and botany. She was born in Sutton Coldfield, United Kingdom. Her family enjoyed a good social and economic position. Therefore, she was able to study at Cheltenham Ladies ’College, an educational institute that offered high educational standards in teaching. Then, she studied Botany and Geology in 1911 but did not receive a Cambridge graduate degree until 1928, when Cambridge began granting degrees to women.

By that time, Wills had admirably managed to graduate as a doctor at the London Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine for Women. From the beginning, he knew that he would devote her knowledge to research and teaching in the Department of Pathological Chemistry of the same center in London. For the year 1928 Margaret Balfour contacted her. For several years she served as chief of pathology until her retirement in 1947.

After her retirement, she worked in South Africa and Fiji studying the effects of nutrition on health. During the last ten years of her life, she was a member of the local government for Chelsea. She started working on macrocytic anemia of pregnancy that primarily affects pregnant women in the tropics, with inadequate diets, this work was developed in several areas of India.

This woman is owed several contributions, such as discovering a nutritional factor in yeast that prevents and cures this disorder: the Wills factor or folate, the natural form of folic acid. In that sense, in the year 1930, she showed that anemia could be reversed with brewer’s yeast, which contains folate.

As part of a recognition of her work and the advancement of medicine, on May 10, 2019, the 131st anniversary of her birth, the Google search engine commemorated Wills with a Doodle available for North America, parts of South America and Europe, Israel, India, and New Zealand. Her knowledge changed the face of prenatal preventive care for women around the world.

 

WORKS

  • Studies on blood and urinary chemistry during pregnancy: blood sugar curves.
  • Studies in pernicious anemia of pregnancy (1930). This research has 4 parts.
  • Treatment of “pernicious anemia” of pregnancy and “tropical anemia” with special reference to yeast extract as a healing agent.
  • The nature of the hemopoietic factor in Marmite.
  • A new factor in the production and cure of certain macrocytic anemias.
  • Tropical macrocytic anemia: its relationship with pernicious anemia.
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Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard Biography
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Claude Bernard Biography

Claude Bernard (July 12, 1813 – February 10, 1878) physiologist. He was born in Saint-Julien, France. The top representative of the French physiology of the 19th century. His life was dedicated to studying the nervous regulation of salivary secretion, pancreatic digestion, and glycogenic liver function. He is admired for having discovered vasomotor innervation and creating the concept of internal secretion. His contributions to experimental pharmacology are also salvageable.

Bernard at nineteen entered as a clerk in a pharmacy in Vaise, a suburb of Lyon. He liked literature so he wrote a drama entitled Arthur de Bretagne, he went to Paris; but then he started studying medicine, leaving literature aside. At first, he had the guidance of the physiologist François Magendie, who was a trainer, and soon gave proof of his genius. In 1843 he could already demonstrate the glycogenic function of the liver. He was an assistant to Magendie and professor of physiology at Collège de France. In the year of 1853, he obtained the title of doctor of science with the thesis Investigations about a new function of the liver, considered as a producing organ of sugary matter.

The following year he was a professor of experimental medicine at the Collège de France. Years later, and thanks to the knowledge acquired, he wrote Introduction to the study of experimental medicine (1865) allowed him to be part of the French Academy; this year he was entrusted with the chair of general physiology of the Sorbonne Natural History Museum, and in 1869 he was appointed member of the Imperial Senate of Napoleon III. In 1870 his intellectual vitality was affected by a kidney disease contracted because of the cold and humidity of his laboratory.

This French defended the determinism linked to neo-vitalism. He also studied, in addition to hepatic glycogenesis, the sympathetic nervous system and poisons. Among his works are Leçon sur la physiologie expérimentale appliquée a la médecine (1856), Les propriétés des tissus vivants (1866) and Leçon Sur Les phenomènes de la vie (1878).

In broad strokes, his works advocated naturalistic principles and thus generated a great influence that he exerted on the naturalist movement, mainly in Zola. Bernard establishes the rules of medicine that is true science and method, must have a solid foundation. For hi medicine must be like physics and chemistry, a science that undergoes an experimental method. But experience is not proven simply by the facts, without being guided by a precise conviction; rather, it must be rigorous and complete experimentation. So, the philosophical and theological yoke is excluded, admitting a personal scientific authority.

Thus, Bernard says, the hypotheses will encourage discoveries and experimentation serves as a guide. Émile Zola developed in his thinking of naturalist novelist Bernard’s famous scientific premises; his essay The experimental novel represents the attempt to apply the principles of physiology to a conception of art. Unfortunately, he died on February 10, 1878. He is remembered for being one of the referents of experimental physiology of the nineteenth century, and, at the same time, one of the most illustrious thinkers of the time in Europe. The medicine had many advances in an anomaly that affects the sympathetic nerves of the face, it was called Claude Bernard-Horner syndrome.

Similarly, he contributed to the development of therapeutics, diabetes, indications of bleeding, detoxification by carbon monoxide through mechanical ventilation, the treatment of anemia with iron lactate, the decrease in body temperature through physical means, treatment of alcohol intoxication, morphine applications, the effects of carbon dioxide, intravenous administration of physiological serum, cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques, among others.

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Adolf Von Baeyer

Adolf Von Baeyer Biography
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Adolf Von Baeyer Biography

Adolf von Baeyer (October 31, 1835 – August 20, 1917) Chemist and Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1905). He was born in Berlin, Germany. He is recognized for the research he carried out on the structure and artificial synthesis of numerous organic compounds. In short, he discovered phenolphthalein and fluorescein. Baeyer is known primarily for the synthesis of indigo.

His father was a military man named Jakob Baeyer, and creator of the European geodetic measurement system. From an early age, Adolf showed great interest in chemistry. His curiosity and intelligence allowed him to synthesize and isolate for the first time a double copper salt with only twelve years of age. Upon finishing his high school studies he entered the University of Berlin to study physics and mathematics. In 1856 he joined the laboratory of Robert Bunsen in Heidelberg. A year later he published the results of several studies on methyl chloride (CH3Cl). In the year of 1858, he was the first research assistant of August Kekulé. The knowledge of this chemist was very helpful in organic chemistry.

Baeyer began studies on uric acid that led to the synthesis of barbituric acid. Then, he served as a professor at the University of Berlin in 1860. Thanks to his long days in the laboratory he discovered that when a complex molecule was subjected to high temperatures in the presence of zinc dust, it could be fragmented. Two of his disciples: Carl Graebe and Karl Liebermann, unraveled the structure of alizarin, a red dye from the root of the tinctorum used to dye the uniforms of the French army.

After seventeen years of studies and research, he found the synthesis of indigo, an intense blue tincture obtained from the leaves and stems of the Indigofera tinctorum. So, he made a synthesis between 1878 and 1882. They were not used for commercial purposes (although, today this dye is necessary for the textile industry). Thanks to this he received the Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1881.

In 1868 he married Adelheid Bendemann. In 1871 he obtained a place at the University of Strasbourg, which he left two years later to start as Professor at the University of Munich. He enjoyed a modern laboratory. He conducted studies on acetylene and polyacetylene, works with benzene and cyclic terpenes, on the other hand, defined the Theory of Torsion, basically, this allows us to understand why those of five and six carbons are the most stable existing cyclic compounds. His work and scientific career were recognized in 1905 with the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his contribution to organic chemistry through chemical dyes. That same year, he turned seventy birthdays, and several of his articles were published in important scientific journals.

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Sergey Brin

Sergey Brin biography
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Sergey Brin biography

Sergei Brin (August 21, 1973) computer scientist and creator of the Internet search engine Google. He was born in Moscow, Soviet Union. Sergei Brin was born into a Jewish family that enjoyed a well-off position but due to their religious beliefs, the Russian government prevented them from certain possibilities. His father, Mikhail Brin, was a mathematician, and his mother, Eugenia Brin, worked in the field of science when Sergei was six years old they decided to move to the United States to find better living conditions.

When they arrived, their mother landed a major position in NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, and her father obtained a position as professor of Mathematics at the University of Maryland, she also decided to change her name, due to North American anti-communist policies, Michael Brin. He entered to study at the Paint Branch Montessori School. His parents were very attentive in the education of his son, who demonstrated a great ability for mathematics. Throughout his school years, he was a student with excellent grades.

Upon graduation, he enrolled at the University of Maryland to study Mathematics and Computer Science. In the stipulated time, 1993, he received his degree with honors and applied for a grant from the National Science Foundation. He began his postgraduate studies at Stanford University. Simultaneously, he started working at Wolfram Research, the creator of Mathematica. While in the winter of 1998, he began to develop an idea to create a search engine for the internet, the idea was developed with the help of Larry Page. His great motivation was the inefficiency and the multiple errors of the search engines existing at that time.

They held several meetings with brilliant people in this field, and they met Andy Bechtolsheim, an investor from Sun Microsystems. They decided to present their idea, they also made a quick demonstration and they got that, without thinking twice, Bechtolsheim extended a check worth 100,000 dollars to start the project. Although with this amount achieved only the beginning of the project, the young people full of enthusiasm began to get other economic support and various sources of income. As a result, Brin and Page managed to get two of the most relevant US venture capital firms, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital, to agree to finance their idea. They then collected 25 million dollars. The project was still ongoing.

At first, they thought of the word googol to baptize their search engine, a term invented by the mathematician Edward Kasner to name the number 1 followed by 100 zeros. Then they changed their name to Google. We must mention that Yahoo! played an essential role in driving Google. Yahoo! collaborated encouraging the creation of his own search engine, the pair of colleagues began to offer in its popular portal the possibility of searching through that engine. For the year 2003, Google swept daily searches, had about 112 million, compared to Yahoo !, which only supported approximately 42 million.

The reason was that Google was more effective, its presentation was much more attractive, and allowed more fixed searches. Brin and Page decided to add new possibilities to the dozen functions related to their search engine and the continuous experimentation with many others. Something really innovative was that Google allowed the users to easily locate images, newsgroups and searches using the Open Directory thematic directory tool, an international volunteer project that catalogs web pages by hand.

After a few years, thanks to the popularity of Google, colleagues received a Webby, a prize. Google was inserting new services every time, such as the search engine of products on sale in the Google network; the product search within mail order catalogs; a language translator, among other new features. When the new millennium began Google began to think about the modification and restructuring of its building located in the Californian region of Mountain View, more than a hundred employees worked in an unusual environment.

So they adopted as a philosophy: to offer a pleasant place to work and with that to motivate and retain employees. Among the renovations are yoga classes, massages, bars, free ice cream machines, food prepared with organic food by two chefs, a ping-pong table, swimming pool, two pianos, and hockey meetings twice a week. The goal of Google at that time was especially to create better search engines, extract information from unstructured sources and databases of long collections of text and scientific information.

Brin has authored more than a dozen articles in top-level academic journals and has also been a lecturer in various international academic forums, most of them are business and technology, in 2002, Brin was proclaimed “Young Innovator Who Will Create the Future” by Technology magazine Review This publication was edited by the prestigious Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). What this couple achieved, especially at Brin’s initiative, was impressive. At present everyone knows and has used Google.

Although it has been censored by some countries of totalitarian politics like China. According to computer experts, Google is “the saving medicine” for most Internet users. One of its characteristics is the speed and effectiveness. Now, its design is simple and direct, and without incorporating advertising in its pages that generate distraction in the users. We must accept that, Internet users have preferred this search engine to the detriment of other, earlier, more popular ones. Brin has advanced several projects, along with Larry Page, who are looking for ways to solve the problem of global energy and environmental hazards through Google’s philanthropic area called Google.org.

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