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Adolf Von Baeyer

Adolf Von Baeyer Biography
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Adolf Von Baeyer Biography

Adolf von Baeyer (October 31, 1835 – August 20, 1917) Chemist and Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1905). He was born in Berlin, Germany. He is recognized for the research he carried out on the structure and artificial synthesis of numerous organic compounds. In short, he discovered phenolphthalein and fluorescein. Baeyer is known primarily for the synthesis of indigo.

His father was a military man named Jakob Baeyer, and creator of the European geodetic measurement system. From an early age, Adolf showed great interest in chemistry. His curiosity and intelligence allowed him to synthesize and isolate for the first time a double copper salt with only twelve years of age. Upon finishing his high school studies he entered the University of Berlin to study physics and mathematics. In 1856 he joined the laboratory of Robert Bunsen in Heidelberg. A year later he published the results of several studies on methyl chloride (CH3Cl). In the year of 1858, he was the first research assistant of August Kekulé. The knowledge of this chemist was very helpful in organic chemistry.

Baeyer began studies on uric acid that led to the synthesis of barbituric acid. Then, he served as a professor at the University of Berlin in 1860. Thanks to his long days in the laboratory he discovered that when a complex molecule was subjected to high temperatures in the presence of zinc dust, it could be fragmented. Two of his disciples: Carl Graebe and Karl Liebermann, unraveled the structure of alizarin, a red dye from the root of the tinctorum used to dye the uniforms of the French army.

After seventeen years of studies and research, he found the synthesis of indigo, an intense blue tincture obtained from the leaves and stems of the Indigofera tinctorum. So, he made a synthesis between 1878 and 1882. They were not used for commercial purposes (although, today this dye is necessary for the textile industry). Thanks to this he received the Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1881.

In 1868 he married Adelheid Bendemann. In 1871 he obtained a place at the University of Strasbourg, which he left two years later to start as Professor at the University of Munich. He enjoyed a modern laboratory. He conducted studies on acetylene and polyacetylene, works with benzene and cyclic terpenes, on the other hand, defined the Theory of Torsion, basically, this allows us to understand why those of five and six carbons are the most stable existing cyclic compounds. His work and scientific career were recognized in 1905 with the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his contribution to organic chemistry through chemical dyes. That same year, he turned seventy birthdays, and several of his articles were published in important scientific journals.

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Willem Einthoven

Willem Einthoven Biography
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Willem Einthoven Biography

Willem Einthoven (May 21, 1860 – September 28, 1927) Physiologist and physician. Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1924. He was born in Semarang, Indonesia. He is well known for his contributions to the development of the electrocardiograph and its clinical application. His father died when they lived in Java, so Willem moved to the University of Utrecht to study medicine.

After finishing his studies he obtained the position of professor at the University of Leiden to deal with the positions of physiology and histology. He took the opportunity to advance an important work in the field of research. He quickly showed himself as a reputable scientist, participated in numerous international scientific forums and the best thing is that by managing several languages ​​he could communicate his ideas faithfully without the need for translators.

For several years he experimented with the rope galvanometer and its utility for the registration of cardiac potentials, and the results obtained were published in an article in the year 1901. Five years later, he masterfully described the clinical applications of the electrocardiogram in Telecardiogramme (1906). After that, he published another article that laid the foundations for the development of this important tool in cardiology analysis. His investigative work was carried out simultaneously with his work as a professor.

Thanks to his work, the galvanometer was used to measure the differences in electrical potential during systolic and diastolic heart contractions and reproduce them graphically. This procedure is known as an electrocardiogram.

Later, he was interested in analyzing how healthy hearts worked and then defining a reference frame, through which attention was paid to the deviations caused by the disease. To sum up, he revolutionized the study, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac pathologies. In his honor, the lunar crater Einthoven bears his name.

 

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Lucy Wills

Lucy Wills Biography
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Lucy Wills Biography

Lucy Wills (May 10, 1888 – 1964) hematologist and botany. She was born in Sutton Coldfield, United Kingdom. Her family enjoyed a good social and economic position. Therefore, she was able to study at Cheltenham Ladies ’College, an educational institute that offered high educational standards in teaching. Then, she studied Botany and Geology in 1911 but did not receive a Cambridge graduate degree until 1928, when Cambridge began granting degrees to women.

By that time, Wills had admirably managed to graduate as a doctor at the London Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine for Women. From the beginning, he knew that he would devote her knowledge to research and teaching in the Department of Pathological Chemistry of the same center in London. For the year 1928 Margaret Balfour contacted her. For several years she served as chief of pathology until her retirement in 1947.

After her retirement, she worked in South Africa and Fiji studying the effects of nutrition on health. During the last ten years of her life, she was a member of the local government for Chelsea. She started working on macrocytic anemia of pregnancy that primarily affects pregnant women in the tropics, with inadequate diets, this work was developed in several areas of India.

This woman is owed several contributions, such as discovering a nutritional factor in yeast that prevents and cures this disorder: the Wills factor or folate, the natural form of folic acid. In that sense, in the year 1930, she showed that anemia could be reversed with brewer’s yeast, which contains folate.

As part of a recognition of her work and the advancement of medicine, on May 10, 2019, the 131st anniversary of her birth, the Google search engine commemorated Wills with a Doodle available for North America, parts of South America and Europe, Israel, India, and New Zealand. Her knowledge changed the face of prenatal preventive care for women around the world.

 

WORKS

  • Studies on blood and urinary chemistry during pregnancy: blood sugar curves.
  • Studies in pernicious anemia of pregnancy (1930). This research has 4 parts.
  • Treatment of “pernicious anemia” of pregnancy and “tropical anemia” with special reference to yeast extract as a healing agent.
  • The nature of the hemopoietic factor in Marmite.
  • A new factor in the production and cure of certain macrocytic anemias.
  • Tropical macrocytic anemia: its relationship with pernicious anemia.
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Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard Biography
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Claude Bernard Biography

Claude Bernard (July 12, 1813 – February 10, 1878) physiologist. He was born in Saint-Julien, France. The top representative of the French physiology of the 19th century. His life was dedicated to studying the nervous regulation of salivary secretion, pancreatic digestion, and glycogenic liver function. He is admired for having discovered vasomotor innervation and creating the concept of internal secretion. His contributions to experimental pharmacology are also salvageable.

Bernard at nineteen entered as a clerk in a pharmacy in Vaise, a suburb of Lyon. He liked literature so he wrote a drama entitled Arthur de Bretagne, he went to Paris; but then he started studying medicine, leaving literature aside. At first, he had the guidance of the physiologist François Magendie, who was a trainer, and soon gave proof of his genius. In 1843 he could already demonstrate the glycogenic function of the liver. He was an assistant to Magendie and professor of physiology at Collège de France. In the year of 1853, he obtained the title of doctor of science with the thesis Investigations about a new function of the liver, considered as a producing organ of sugary matter.

The following year he was a professor of experimental medicine at the Collège de France. Years later, and thanks to the knowledge acquired, he wrote Introduction to the study of experimental medicine (1865) allowed him to be part of the French Academy; this year he was entrusted with the chair of general physiology of the Sorbonne Natural History Museum, and in 1869 he was appointed member of the Imperial Senate of Napoleon III. In 1870 his intellectual vitality was affected by a kidney disease contracted because of the cold and humidity of his laboratory.

This French defended the determinism linked to neo-vitalism. He also studied, in addition to hepatic glycogenesis, the sympathetic nervous system and poisons. Among his works are Leçon sur la physiologie expérimentale appliquée a la médecine (1856), Les propriétés des tissus vivants (1866) and Leçon Sur Les phenomènes de la vie (1878).

In broad strokes, his works advocated naturalistic principles and thus generated a great influence that he exerted on the naturalist movement, mainly in Zola. Bernard establishes the rules of medicine that is true science and method, must have a solid foundation. For hi medicine must be like physics and chemistry, a science that undergoes an experimental method. But experience is not proven simply by the facts, without being guided by a precise conviction; rather, it must be rigorous and complete experimentation. So, the philosophical and theological yoke is excluded, admitting a personal scientific authority.

Thus, Bernard says, the hypotheses will encourage discoveries and experimentation serves as a guide. Émile Zola developed in his thinking of naturalist novelist Bernard’s famous scientific premises; his essay The experimental novel represents the attempt to apply the principles of physiology to a conception of art. Unfortunately, he died on February 10, 1878. He is remembered for being one of the referents of experimental physiology of the nineteenth century, and, at the same time, one of the most illustrious thinkers of the time in Europe. The medicine had many advances in an anomaly that affects the sympathetic nerves of the face, it was called Claude Bernard-Horner syndrome.

Similarly, he contributed to the development of therapeutics, diabetes, indications of bleeding, detoxification by carbon monoxide through mechanical ventilation, the treatment of anemia with iron lactate, the decrease in body temperature through physical means, treatment of alcohol intoxication, morphine applications, the effects of carbon dioxide, intravenous administration of physiological serum, cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques, among others.

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Sergey Brin

Sergey Brin biography
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Sergey Brin biography

Sergei Brin (August 21, 1973) computer scientist and creator of the Internet search engine Google. He was born in Moscow, Soviet Union. Sergei Brin was born into a Jewish family that enjoyed a well-off position but due to their religious beliefs, the Russian government prevented them from certain possibilities. His father, Mikhail Brin, was a mathematician, and his mother, Eugenia Brin, worked in the field of science when Sergei was six years old they decided to move to the United States to find better living conditions.

When they arrived, their mother landed a major position in NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, and her father obtained a position as professor of Mathematics at the University of Maryland, she also decided to change her name, due to North American anti-communist policies, Michael Brin. He entered to study at the Paint Branch Montessori School. His parents were very attentive in the education of his son, who demonstrated a great ability for mathematics. Throughout his school years, he was a student with excellent grades.

Upon graduation, he enrolled at the University of Maryland to study Mathematics and Computer Science. In the stipulated time, 1993, he received his degree with honors and applied for a grant from the National Science Foundation. He began his postgraduate studies at Stanford University. Simultaneously, he started working at Wolfram Research, the creator of Mathematica. While in the winter of 1998, he began to develop an idea to create a search engine for the internet, the idea was developed with the help of Larry Page. His great motivation was the inefficiency and the multiple errors of the search engines existing at that time.

They held several meetings with brilliant people in this field, and they met Andy Bechtolsheim, an investor from Sun Microsystems. They decided to present their idea, they also made a quick demonstration and they got that, without thinking twice, Bechtolsheim extended a check worth 100,000 dollars to start the project. Although with this amount achieved only the beginning of the project, the young people full of enthusiasm began to get other economic support and various sources of income. As a result, Brin and Page managed to get two of the most relevant US venture capital firms, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital, to agree to finance their idea. They then collected 25 million dollars. The project was still ongoing.

At first, they thought of the word googol to baptize their search engine, a term invented by the mathematician Edward Kasner to name the number 1 followed by 100 zeros. Then they changed their name to Google. We must mention that Yahoo! played an essential role in driving Google. Yahoo! collaborated encouraging the creation of his own search engine, the pair of colleagues began to offer in its popular portal the possibility of searching through that engine. For the year 2003, Google swept daily searches, had about 112 million, compared to Yahoo !, which only supported approximately 42 million.

The reason was that Google was more effective, its presentation was much more attractive, and allowed more fixed searches. Brin and Page decided to add new possibilities to the dozen functions related to their search engine and the continuous experimentation with many others. Something really innovative was that Google allowed the users to easily locate images, newsgroups and searches using the Open Directory thematic directory tool, an international volunteer project that catalogs web pages by hand.

After a few years, thanks to the popularity of Google, colleagues received a Webby, a prize. Google was inserting new services every time, such as the search engine of products on sale in the Google network; the product search within mail order catalogs; a language translator, among other new features. When the new millennium began Google began to think about the modification and restructuring of its building located in the Californian region of Mountain View, more than a hundred employees worked in an unusual environment.

So they adopted as a philosophy: to offer a pleasant place to work and with that to motivate and retain employees. Among the renovations are yoga classes, massages, bars, free ice cream machines, food prepared with organic food by two chefs, a ping-pong table, swimming pool, two pianos, and hockey meetings twice a week. The goal of Google at that time was especially to create better search engines, extract information from unstructured sources and databases of long collections of text and scientific information.

Brin has authored more than a dozen articles in top-level academic journals and has also been a lecturer in various international academic forums, most of them are business and technology, in 2002, Brin was proclaimed “Young Innovator Who Will Create the Future” by Technology magazine Review This publication was edited by the prestigious Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). What this couple achieved, especially at Brin’s initiative, was impressive. At present everyone knows and has used Google.

Although it has been censored by some countries of totalitarian politics like China. According to computer experts, Google is “the saving medicine” for most Internet users. One of its characteristics is the speed and effectiveness. Now, its design is simple and direct, and without incorporating advertising in its pages that generate distraction in the users. We must accept that, Internet users have preferred this search engine to the detriment of other, earlier, more popular ones. Brin has advanced several projects, along with Larry Page, who are looking for ways to solve the problem of global energy and environmental hazards through Google’s philanthropic area called Google.org.

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Richard Dawkins

Richard Dawkins biography
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Richard Dawkins biography

Clinton Richard Dawkins (March 26, 1941) ethologist, zoologist, and evolutionary biologist. He was born in Nairobi, Kenya, Africa. Although his parents are from England. Richard was born in African lands because at that time his father, Clinton John Dawkins, was engaged as a farmer, before that he had been rendered his service to the fatherland as a soldier in Nyasaland (now Malawi). And his mother was Jean Mary Vyvyan Dawkins. The family enjoyed a well-off position. They were also very educated and enlightened, a question that Richard inherited. His taste for biology was great, he spent his time reading natural science books and exploring every corner of the farm.

He was educated under the precepts of the Anglican religion, but without falling into radicalism, from the age of nine began to question the divine existence. Although at first, he continued to lukewarmly follow the argument of design, the uses and customs of Anglican ecclesiastics seemed absurd to him and had more to do with dictating morals than with God. So, at the age of sixteen, he studied evolution, and became completely detached from religion and embraced the idea that evolution could account for the complexity of life in purely material terms.

At this time the young man was already living in England with his parents and attended the Oundle school. As soon as he graduated, he began studying zoology at Balliol College. Once there, he was a student of the ethologist Nikolaas Tinbergen, winner of a Nobel Prize in Medicine. He was a research student under the tutelage of Tinbergen. In 1962 he graduated and then completed his master’s degree in 1966. Here he also excelled as a research student. He was for a period of almost twenty years with his wife Marian Stamp. Then he married Eve Barham, with whom he had a daughter: Juliet.

After a few years, he divorced. In 1992 he married for the third time with the actress Lalla Ward. She has illustrated several of his books. Returning to his professional career we must say that he developed for a long time as a professor of zoology at the University of California, Berkeley. Simultaneously began his career as a lecturer, especially was hired by the University of Oxford. In 1995 he moved to the Charles Simonyi Chair of Science Dissemination. Since 1970 he has been a member of the New College, Oxford.

He has offered several lectures in important knowledge centers, such as: Henry Sidgwick Memorial Lecture (1989), the first Erasmus Darwin Memorial Lecture (1990), the Michael Faraday Lecture (1991), the Huxley Memorial Lecture (1992), the Irvine Memorial Lecture (1997), the Sheldon Doyle Lecture (1999), the Tinbergen Lecture (2000) and the Tanner Lecture (2003). Among others. He was a founder of the scientific journal Episteme Journal in 2002 and has also collaborated in the edition of Encarta Encyclopedia and the Encyclopedia of Evolution. In short, he has written in several columns, the most outstanding was that of the Free Inquiry magazine of the Council for Secular Humanism.

He also chaired the biological sciences section of the British Society for Scientific Progress. His great mastery and popularity have earned him several management positions in various organizations. He served as a jury of awards such as the Faraday Prize of the Royal Society and the British Academy Award. He participated in a conference that brings together the most outstanding personalities of the scientific community. On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin, he was named doctor honoris causa by the University of Valencia.

Dawkins defended the vision of the evolution centered on the genes, a vision exposed his book the egoistic gene (1976), or the extended phenotype (1982). Now, as an ethologist interested in animal behavior and its relationship with natural selection, his thesis was that the gene is the main unit of selection of evolution. In his books he has used the genocentric vision, explaining that it is a useful model of evolution in some cases. Another contribution of Dawkins was the use of the term meme to extend the principles of Darwin and explain the dissemination of ideas and cultural phenomena, this gave way to the theory of memetics. This theory has been criticized for being too reductionist. One of the people who have most questioned and debated with him has been the philosopher Mary Midgley.

He was present at the XXXIV Convention of American Atheists in March 2008. He is one of the critics of the most famous creationism in the world. In The Blind Watchmaker faithfully exposes such criticism. For the above is considered an atheist. However, he says he is agnostic. He is an honorary member of the National Lay Society. Dawkins is known for his rejection of religious extremism, from Islamist terrorism to Christian fundamentalism. In educational matters ensures that education must be detached from religious dogma. In the year 2006, he made a documentary on a channel entitled The root of all evil speaks about the malign influence of organized religion in society.

Dawkins published that same year, The Mirage of  God which was a campaign against religion. He had the opportunity to share some theses of this book in the conference Beyond Belief: Science, Religion, Reason, and Survival. Dawkins has promoted various initiatives in favor of atheism: Out Campaign. This has won him hundreds of critics. One of them, Alister McGrath, promoter of “scientific theology” said he had no knowledge of Christian theology. Other characters like Keith Ward, Christian philosopher attack their ideas. In contrast, the defenders of Dawkins claim that critics do not understand Dawkins’ argument.

On February 23, 2012, he held a major debate with Rowan Williams, the archbishop of Canterbury and head of the Church of England and the Anglican Communion, this was held at the Sheldonian Theater of the University of Oxford. The debate occupied all the theater and had to be broadcast live on some screens. He has also debated, on several occasions, with Oxford Mathematics Professor and philosopher of science John Lennox. Dawkins has been uneasy about the exponential growth of the human population and the problem of overpopulation. So, he is critical of Catholic positions against family planning and population control.

Dawkins was elected a Member of the Royal Literary Society in 1997 and of the Royal Society in 2001. He has received awards at the Royal Society Literature Award, the Literary Prize of the Los Angeles Times, the Silver Medal of the Zoological Society of London, the Prize Michael Faraday, the Nakayama Award, the Humanist of the Year Award, the fifth International Cosmos Award, the Kistler Prize, the Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic and the Kelvin Bicentennial Medal. He was also named the author of the year at the British Book Awards.

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