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Nicki Minaj

Biography of Nicki Minaj
Nicki Minaj, From Instagram
Personal information
Full nameOnika Tanya Maraj
BirthdateDecember 8, 1982
Age40 years old
OccupationRapper, Songwriter, Singer, Model, Actress, Entrepreneur
NationalityAmerican
Spouse

Kenneth Petty (matr. 2020)

Couple

Safaree Samuels (2000-2014)
Meek Mill (2015-2017)

Parents

Robert Maraj and Carol Maraj

GendersHip hop, R&B, pop, dance
Zodiac signSagittarius

Biography of Nicki Minaj

Nicki Minaj (born December 8, 1982) is a rapper, songwriter, and model from Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Her real name is Tanya Maraj Onika. Her family moved to Queens, New York, where they lived in a neighborhood predominantly inhabited by Jamaicans. Her father, Robert Maraj, worked as a financial executive, but he was also very passionate about music and used to sing gospel music in his free time. Her mother, Carol Maraj, was also an African-origin gospel singer and worked in accounting departments. Nicki Minaj’s family had problems during her childhood, as her father was addicted to drugs and alcohol, which led to frequent fights between her parents. On one occasion, he even tried to burn down the family home.

For a while, Minaj and her siblings lived with their grandmother in St. James while her mother attended Monroe University. Minaj attended Elizabeth Blackwell Middle School, where she learned to play the clarinet. She auditioned for singing at La Guardia High School in Manhattan, but was not selected. However, she was chosen for acting and participated in the school’s drama program. After graduating, Minaj participated in an off-Broadway play called “In Case You Forget” in 2001. She then had to work as a waitress at the Red Lobster seafood chain in the Bronx to make a living.

Start of her music career

Minaj did not last long in that job due to her conduct, nor in other jobs. She worked as an administrative assistant, customer service, and office manager for a Wall Street company. She then began to look for ways to venture into music and released her first mixtape: “Playtime Is Over” (2007). It featured the collaboration of Lil Wayne on the song “Can’t Stop, Won’t Stop”. The following year, she released her mixtape “Sucka Free”. Her style and music were very attractive, so she was invited to appear in the July edition of XXL magazine. Later, Minaj won the Female Artist of the Year award at the Underground Music Awards. She released “Beam Me Up Scotty” (2009).

She was signed by Young Money Entertainment and owned the rights to her merchandise, sponsorships, tours, and publications. She released her album “Pink Friday” on November 19, 2010 along with a promotional single. In August, Minaj released “Your Love” as the official lead single from her debut album. It reached number 14 on the Billboard Hot 100, number 7 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart, and topped the rap songs chart. Minaj became the first female artist to appear on MTV’s Annual Hottest MC list and also the first artist to have seven songs on the Billboard Hot 100 simultaneously. Minaj’s most successful single to date in Europe was “Check It Out”, released with The Black Eyed Peas leader will.i.am.

She released other singles, one very popular was “Moment 4 Life” featuring Canadian rapper Drake. It was a success on the Billboard Hot 100 and reached number 5 on the rap songs chart. The album received a platinum certification in the United States weeks later. Minaj was in the Colombian capital in 2011 where she recorded a single and was soon invited to “Saturday Night Live”. At that time, “Pink Friday” reached number one on the Billboard 200 in week eleven. She was the opening act on Britney Spears‘ “Femme Fatale Tour”. She also appeared on the official remix of “Till the World Ends”, alongside Spears and singer Ke$ha.

The Queen of Rap

She sang “Super Bass” at the annual Billboard Music Awards and the critics considered her performance “memorable”. “Pink Friday” was the best-selling album in the United States, with 2 020 000 copies, being the third best-selling album by a female hip-hop artist in the country’s history. Therefore, and due to her important productions, Nicki Minaj is considered by Billboard, MTV, Rolling Stone, and Forbes as the “Queen of Rap” and one of the most influential female rappers of the 21st century. She claims to be very grateful for life and that her music is influenced by artists such as Lisa Lopes, Lil Wayne, Lauryn Hill, Jadakiss, Natasha Bedingfield, Foxy Brown, and Missy Elliott.

Image contracts for big brands

Minaj has signed contracts with a variety of clothing brands and other companies, ensuring a excellent annual income. In 2011, she was hired for the launch of the Casio digital camera in Times Square. She also participated in the launch of the Nokia Lumia 900 performing her songs. She appeared in a Pepsi television advertisement in Argentina. Her popularity has been such that Mattel produced a Barbie inspired by Nicki Minaj. She has also been a model for MAC Cosmetics. Nicki Minaj collaborated with OPI Products on a collection of colorful nail polishes that were named after her songs. In 2012 she signed a sponsorship contract with Adidas. The song chosen for the promotion was “Masquerade” by Nicki Minaj.

The young woman decided to start her own business with her new fragrance, called Pink Friday, which was released in September 2012 under the exclusive license of Macy’s in the United States and international Elisabeth Arden. Her song Super Bass was included in the fourth edition of the Just Dance video game. There have been many rumors about her sexual orientation and she has shown her anger with the bisexual label. There have also been rumors about her separation from Safaree Samuels, her partner of 12 years. Her album, The Pinkprint, is inspired by the end of their relationship. In a song, she spoke about how she had an abortion at the age of 16 when she became pregnant with her boyfriend Aaron.

On April 12, 2015, Minaj made public her relationship with rapper Meek Mill, but it only lasted two years. One of her latest musical releases was the album titled Queen, which was presented at a special appearance at the Met Gala 2018 in New York and was released to the market on June 15, 2018 with the record label Young Money and Cash Money Records. The first two singles from the album were released on April 12, 2018 and their music videos were published on the singer’s YouTube channel on May 4, 2018.

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Artist

Paul McCartney

Biography of Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney, From Instagram

Biography of Paul McCartney

Paul McCartney (born June 18, 1942) is a singer. He was born in Liverpool, England. His mother, Mary Patricia, was a nurse, while his father, James McCartney, was a volunteer firefighter. During Paul’s birth, his father was not present as he was fighting in the Battle of England during World War II. Paul grew up in a religious and strict environment, with his mother Catholic and his father Protestant, but later became agnostic. After returning from the war, his father devoted himself to selling cleaning products and, in his free time, played in bars.

Death of his mother

That’s why his son developed a deep love for music. He stood out in school for his intelligence and discipline and studied at Liverpool Institute secondary school, a good free secondary school. In 1954, he met George Harrison, with whom he quickly formed a strong friendship. At the time, McCartney’s mother was the one who kept the household and for work reasons they moved to Allerton, where they lived until 1964. On October 31, 1956, when McCartney was 14 years old, his mother died from a stroke.

After his mother’s death, McCartney was devastated. It took some time for him to return to normal. His father saw music as a refuge to help his son feel better, so he took him to listen to the Jim Mac’s Jazz Band, where his father played trumpet or piano. He also gave him a trumpet, but when rock and roll became popular, he chose an acoustic guitar. The first song he composed was “I Lost My Little Girl” on that guitar, a Zenith. He also composed “When I’m Sixty-Four” on the home piano.

1957 – Met John Lennon

He met Lennon on July 6th, 1957. McCartney joined The Quarrymen, a school band led by Lennon, in 1958 as the lead guitarist. The band mixed rock and roll and skiffle, a popular music style, with jazz and blues. After several name changes, the band decided to call themselves The Beatles in August 1960 and recruited drummer Pete Best for their move to Hamburg. In 1961, one of its members, Sutcliffe, left the band and McCartney was forced to take over as bassist. They recorded as a backing band for English singer Tony Sheridan on the single My Bonnie.

1963 – “Beatlemania”

They managed to attract the attention of Brian Epstein, who became their manager in January 1962 and a key figure in their later success. With their first hit, “Love Me Do” in 1963, the “Beatlemania” began. John Lennon and Paul wrote a large number of songs together, but later their egos collided and they preferred to write separately. In 1970, The Beatles disbanded. But Paul continued his successful career with songs that reached number one. He recorded his first solo LP, “McCartney”, with songs very different from those that Lennon would write, with commercial melodies for varied tastes.

1980 – Paul McCartney Guinness Records

In 1980, he entered the Guinness Book of Records as the highest-selling songwriter in the world. His theme Yesterday, one of the most celebrated by The Beatles, has around 2,500 versions in the most diverse musical styles. Some of his solo hits are: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey, Live and Let Die for the James Bond film received the Oscar for best musical theme; Coming Up from his solo album Paul McCartney II. He joined George Martin and Ringo Starr in 1982 for the recording of Tug of War. On Press to play, his next album, was recorded with Eric Stewart.

Awards, arrest, record.

Winner of 18 Grammy Awards, including two Lifetime Achievement Grammy Awards (one with the Beatles and another as a solo artist). He is a vegetarian and an animal rights advocate. He was arrested for marijuana possession in Tokyo in 1980 and was briefly in jail. He participated in the “Live Aid” concert against hunger in Ethiopia in 1985. In 1990, he achieved the record for the largest attendance at a concert with 184,000 people in Rio de Janeiro. Since 1997 he is Sir Paul McCartney, invested as a knight by Queen Elizabeth II.

2013 – Other awards, marriages.

On February 10, 2013, he received a Grammy for “Best Traditional Pop Album” for his album “Kisses On The Bottom”. Later, he received a special award from PRS for Music in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the composition of his most famous song, “Yesterday“. These songs, as well as “And I Love Her,” “You Will Not See Me,” and “I’m Looking Through You,” were written inspired by his relationship with British actress Jane Asher. After five years of engagement, the couple broke up due to his infidelity with Francie Schwartz. He married Linda Eastman on March 12, 1969, and together they formed the musical group Wings after the dissolution of the Beatles. In 1999, he presented his collection of poems entitled “Blackbird Singing: Poems and Lyrics (1965-1999)”. After the death of his wife, McCartney experienced deep sadness.

In 2002, Paul McCartney married former model Heather Mills in an Irish castle. After a long legal battle in the London Supreme Court, in 2008 Mills was authorized to collect one fifth of the 250 million dollars she had demanded from McCartney for their four-year marriage. In 2011, McCartney married Nancy Shevell in a civil ceremony in London on October 9th of that year.

Relevant aspects of his life and musical career

  • With 60 gold records and the sale of over 100 million albums and singles as a solo artist and with The Beatles, McCartney is recognized as one of the most successful composers and artists of all time.
  • As a solo artist in 1999 and as a member of The Beatles in 1988, he has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice.
  • As a solo artist and with The Beatles, he has been recognized with twenty-one Grammy Awards.
  • 32 of the songs that McCartney has written or co-written have reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100.
  • As of 2014, he had sold over 15 million certified units by the RIAA in the United States.
  • In 1997, McCartney was elevated to the rank of knight for his services to music.
  • In 1965, McCartney, Lennon, Harrison and Starr were named members of the Order of the British Empire.
  • He has been married three times and is the father of five children.
  • He has participated in projects to help international charities related to issues such as animal rights, seal hunting, landmine cleaning, vegetarianism, poverty and musical education.
  • He ranks 11th on Rolling Stone’s list of 100 Greatest Singers.
  • He ranks first on Rolling Stone’s list of 100 Greatest Artists as a member of The Beatles.
  • He ranks third on Rolling Stone’s list of 100 Greatest Bassists.
  • Only surpassed by Bob Dylan, he ranks second on Rolling Stone’s list of 100 Greatest Songwriters.
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Beyoncé

Biography of Beyoncé
Beyoncé, From Instagram

Biography of Beyoncé

Beyoncé Giselle Knowles-Carter, known simply as Beyoncé, is an American singer, actress, dancer, entrepreneur, and fashion designer. She was born in Houston, Texas on September 4th, 1981. She is the older sister of singer and actress Solange Knowles and the daughter of Mathew and Tina Knowles. From a young age, Beyoncé grew up with the conviction of dedicating herself to music. She studied at the High School for the Performing and Visual Arts and later at the Alief Elsik High School. At a young age, she won a talent contest with a performance of “Imagine,” the famous song by John Lennon. In 1997, she joined the quartet Destiny’s Child, along with LeToya Luckett, LaTavia Roberson, and her childhood friend Kelly Rowland, which later became a trio with Michelle Williams, Beyoncé and her friend. With this group, the singer achieved success, selling more than sixty million copies around the world.

2003 – First solo album.

In 2003, Beyoncé released her debut album as a solo artist, “Dangerously in Love”, which reached the number one spot on the Billboard 200 in its first week with 317,000 copies sold. She also won five Grammy awards, reached the top spots on the Canadian and British charts, and ultimately sold a total of 11 million copies worldwide. The single “Crazy in Love”, which featured the collaboration of Jay-Z (with whom she had started a romantic relationship since 2002), was the most popular song of that summer.

2006 – Album “B’Day”

On September 4th, 2006, she released her second solo album, titled B’Day to celebrate her 25th birthday. This album has accumulated more than eight million sales worldwide and was positioned at number one on the Billboard 200. For the single “Déjà vu” from the same album, she again collaborated with rapper Jay-Z and Rodney Jerkins. This single reached the top of the British chart, fifth place on the American chart and first on the US R&B chart. In the same year, Beyoncé released her second international single from B’Day, “Irreplaceable,” which was her most successful song at the time. It stayed on the top of the American chart for ten weeks. For the third single, “Upgrade U,” she collaborated again with Jay-Z and eventually married him a year later in the French capital.

Album “I Am… Sasha Fierce”

On November 18th of the same year of her marriage, she released her third album, I Am… Sasha Fierce, which becomes a great success like her other works. For this album she released the singles If Were a Boy, Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It), Diva, Halo, and Sweet Dreams. One year later, in 2009, she went on a tour to promote the album, I Am… Tour, and another year later she was awarded six Grammy awards out of the ten she was nominated for. Also, her song Video Phone, which featured Lady Gaga, was nominated for five MTV awards. In 2011 she released her fourth album, 4, after it was leaked on the internet. At the same time, it was known that she was pregnant and she had to deny some media that insisted that everything was a lie.

2013 – “The Formation World Tour” Tour

In 2013, Beyoncé releases “Life is But a Dream,” an autobiographical documentary for HBO, and later performs a tour to promote her fourth album, titled “The Mrs. Carter Show World Tour.” To avoid the disaster that occurred on the internet with her previous work, Beyoncé decides to make a surprise release of her fifth work, “Beyoncé,” which contained 14 songs and 17 music videos. With different content from her older works, Beyoncé explores deeper themes in this album, receiving approval and praise from critics and audiences. Following this success, the artist released her sixth music album, “Lemonade,” for which she performed the “The Formation World Tour,” considered one of the most attended in her career and awarded as Tour of the Year for the American Music Awards in its 44th edition.

Later, she performs in Jon Favreau’s film, The Lion King, as Nala; collaborates with Eminem on his song Walk on Water; collaborates with Ed Sheeran for the song Perfect; and goes on a worldwide tour with her husband, Jay-Z, titled On the Run II Tour. Currently, she is working on her seventh project, the name of which is not yet known, but it is known that it will be released through the Netflix platform.

Some recognitions

  • She is considered one of the best contemporary popular music artists for her dynamic and impressive stage choreography.
  • Her career has been going on for over 20 years and she has won 28 Grammy awards.
  • She is one of the highest selling music artists. As a solo artist, she has sold around 100 million recordings and around 60 million with Destiny’s Child.
  • During the 2000s, the Recording Industry Association of America recognized Beyoncé as the number one certified artist in the United States.
  • In 2014, she topped Forbes’ Celebrity 100 list.
  • She became the highest-paid black artist in music history.
  • In 2013 and 2014, she was included on Time magazine’s list of the 100 most influential people in the world.
  • During the 2021 Grammy Awards ceremony on March 14th, she made history by becoming the most awarded female artist in history with a total of 28 awards.
  • In 2021, she was included on Pitchfork’s list of the 200 most influential artists of the last 25 years.
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BTS

History of BTS
BTS, From Instagram

BTS’s history

BTS (established on June 12th, 2013) is a musical group whose name in English means “Bulletproof Boy Scouts”. In Japan, they are known as “Bōdan Shōnendan”. Currently, the members of the group are Suga (rapper, dancer, producer, and composer), J-Hope (rapper, main dancer, occasional vocalist, and choreographer), RM (leader, main rapper, dancer, and producer), Jimin (vocalist, dancer, and visual), V (vocalist, dancer, and visual), Jungkook (main vocalist, dancer, and occasional rapper), and Jin (vocalist, dancer, and composer). The band is made up of young people and their main fan base belongs to the new generation. The band was formed through auditions held by Big Hit Entertainment in 2010 and 2011, and ultimately, the aforementioned artists were selected. They are also known as “Beyond The Scene”.

Career path

After their debut, BTS began to gain followers on social media. Their covers on YouTube and SoundCloud were very popular. Bang Sihyuk, CEO of Big Hit, knew that this group would have a great future. In 2011, they released their first song “Paldogangsan” to promote the Hit It auditions. In 2013, they included the song on their album “O!RUL8,2?” and promoted it on music programs. The following year, they performed on “M Countdown”. Their fame began to grow and some members of the group were called to participate in Jo Kwon’s 2AM’s music video “I’m Da One”.

First songs, concerts, awards.

When they created their YouTube channel, BANGTANTV, and their blog, they began to post some of their songs such as Rap Monster by RM and All I Do Is Win, School Of Tears, and Graduation. Gradually, they created other accounts on social networks that allowed them to be closer to their followers. They promoted their album 2 Cool 4 Skool, which included songs like No More Dream and We Are Bulletproof Pt.2. The song of the moment was N.O. At the end of the year, they would receive their first award as “Best New Artist of the Year” at the fifth edition of the Melon Music Awards. In the future, they began to win more awards such as the Golden Disk Awards, Seoul Music Awards and Gaon Chart K-Pop Awards. They gave a concert called 7 See Concert in Thailand. They participated in the First Japan Showcase in Tokyo, attended by 6,500 people.

2014 – Release of the album “Skool Luv Affair”

On February 12, 2014, Skool Luv Affair was released, which would complete the group’s trilogy about school. Their song “No More Dream” occupied the number 4 spot on Billboard Japan’s Top Single Sales. Over 32,000 units were sold in the first week. At the end of June 2014, they embarked on a trip to the United States to record their new studio album. Taking advantage of their stay, they filmed the reality show “American Hustle Life.” The show began airing in July on the Mnet channel. This further boosted their career and allowed them to give some concerts in countries such as Germany, Sweden, Brazil and Chile.

Nomination for Best Korean Artist

In November, they were nominated for the MTV Europe Music Awards as Best Korean Artist. They managed to release their first full Japanese album, Wake Up. They also won the World Rookie Award at the Gaon Chart K-Pop Awards and two awards at the Japan Gold Disc Awards. To share their musical work, they carried out their First Japanese Tour Wake Up: Open Your Eyes. It took place in Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya and Fukuoka. They began the second part of the BTS Live Episode II tour. During the summer, they also held a fan meeting tour in Japan, which 18,000 fans attended.

“The fame: Fire, Wings, and Love Yourself”

In October, they won the award for Best South Korean Artist at the MTV Europe Music Awards. Afterwards, the group promoted the single “Fire,” and the music video for the song received ten million views on YouTube in 75 hours. Additionally, Gaon Chart declared that the album had achieved a large amount in sales. As a result, the group became the first South Korean artist to enter the Billboard 200 with three albums. Their album “Wings” was the first South Korean album to enter the UK Album Chart. They received recognition from their government for their work as promoters of South Korean culture in the world.

2017 – 2018 – International tours.

At the beginning of 2017, BTS carried out their Live Trilogy Episode III: The Wings Tour. They were the first K-pop group to perform at the American Music Awards, which increased their international popularity. In the middle of the year 2017, they released their second compilation album Love Yourself: Answer. They also released the music video for their new single IDOL, and a version with Nicki Minaj’s participation.

In August 2018, the group began the BTS World Tour: Love Yourself. Shortly after, their collaboration with Steve Aoki, Waste It on Me, was released. In November, Love Yourself: Answer and Mic Drop remix were certified gold and platinum respectively. On November 15th, Burn the Stage: The Movie was released, a documentary style film about the band that was supported and distributed by YouTube. At the end of the year, BTS would again win the Artist of the Year award at the Melon Music Awards, the MAMA and the AAA.

Current – Map of the Soul: Persona

At the beginning of 2019, it was announced that the group was ready to make their comeback with a new album and concept, which would continue in some degree what was shown in the Love Yourself era. After participating for the first time at the Grammys as presenters, the group announced the end of Love Yourself with their Speak Yourself tour. Finally, in April, the group made their comeback with Map of the Soul: Persona, an EP that would have as its intro the RM solo, Persona. Its main theme was Boy With Luv, a collaboration with Halsey.

This new work and new era is apparently inspired – like most of their albums – by various books and research. The influence of Carl Jung’s thought on this new project is noteworthy. Boy With Luv was a huge success in the USA and Europe. Shortly after, the group received the Top Social Artist award from the Billboard Music Awards for the third consecutive time, as well as the Top Duo/Group award, being the first Korean group to achieve it.

Thanks to these new achievements and the success of the album, the group’s popularity increased even more. They participated in The Late Show with Stephen Colbert and Good Morning America. In May, Gaon announced that Map of the Soul: Persona was the best-selling album in South Korea’s history.

#BTScomeback2020

Continuing with the Map of the Soul era, at the beginning of 2020, the first previews of their next album Map of the Soul: 7 appeared, which was scheduled for February 21, 2020. On January 9, the album’s intro, Suga’s solo Shadow, was released, followed later by the first single Black Swan. After its release, Black Swan became a worldwide trend. Later, on February 2nd, they released the outro Ego, performed by J-Hope, and on February 12th, the concept photos of the album were revealed, revealing the sub-units.

Released on February 21, 2020, Map of the Soul: 7 contains 20 songs, including those already released, Black Swan, Ego and Shadow, and songs featured in Map of the Soul: Persona (Persona, Dionysus, Make It Right, Boy with Luv, etc.). The album also features solos My Tyme (Jungkook), Inner Child (V), Moon (Jin) and Filter (Jimin) and themes by sub-units Ugh! (RM, J-Hope and Suga), 00:00 (Zero O’Clock) (Jimin, Jk and V) and Jamais Vu (Jin, J-Hope and JK). The album also includes a collaboration with Sia and a theme co-written by Troye Sivan, Louder Than Bombs.

What charitable events has BTS participated in?

BTS has participated in various charity events. They were at Naver in the collaboration campaign of a charity organization that promotes organ donation, the registration of stem cell donation, support with medical expenses for patients and blood banks. They helped several families affected by the Sewol ferry disaster in 2014. In total, BTS officially launched their Love Myself campaign in partnership with UNICEF, to protect and support children and teenagers who are victims of domestic and school violence, as well as sexual crimes around the world. Along with other celebrities, they made a video Dream Still Lives, as a tribute to Stevie Wonder and Martin Luther King Jr. They gave a short speech at Generation without Limits. The purpose of this project is to provide quality education and training for young people.

BTS discography

Notable collaborations

Albums

  • Dark & Wild (2014)
  • Wings (2016)
  • Love Yourself: Tear (2018)
  • Map of the Soul: 7 (2020)
  • Japones: Wake Up (2014), Youth (2016) y Face Yourself (2018)

EPs

  • O!RUL8,2? (2013)
  • Skool Luv Affair (2014)
  • The Most Beautiful Moment in Life, Part 1 (2015)
  • The Most Beautiful Moment in Life, Part 2 (2015)
  • Love Yourself: Her (2017)
  • Map of the Soul: Persona (2019)

Compilation albums

  • The Most Beautiful Moment in Life: Young Forever (2016)
  • The Best of BTS: Korea Edition (2017)
  • Love Yourself: Answer (2018)
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Metallica history

Metallica history
Kreepin Deth [CC BY 3.0], from Wikimedia Commons

Metallica history

Metallica is an American thrash metal band from Los Angeles and based in San Francisco. It is considered one of the leading groups in the subgenre and throughout its 35-year career it has won numerous awards, including 9 Grammys, 2 American Music Awards, 2 MTV awards, 2 Billboard awards, and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1980 – Beginnings

The history of the band begins in 1980 when Lars Ulrich, the son of tennis player Torben Ulrich, placed an ad in the magazine Recycler looking for a guitarist for a metal band influenced by the British New Wave of Heavy Metal. James Hetfield responded to the ad and joined Ulrich as the first members of the band. Ron McGovney joined as bassist and Lloyd Grant as lead guitarist. With this first formation, the band recorded its first demo, Hit the Lights, considered one of the first thrash metal songs. However, they soon realized that the lineup was not working and Lloyd was replaced by Dave Mustaine.

Despite the early disastrous performances due to the lack of experience of the members, the band continued and released No Life ’till Leather, showing a more aggressive sound. Additionally, Ron McGovney was replaced by Cliff Burton as bassist and Dave Mustaine was replaced by Kirk Hammett due to his alcohol addiction. Since then, James Hetfield has taken on both the role of rhythm guitarist and singer.

1983 – Release of ‘Kill ‘Em All’

With this new lineup and having Johnny Zazula as their manager, the band released in 1983 Kill ‘Em All, which gained notoriety in the metal scene and sold more than 300,000 copies. After a tour of the United States and a concert in Holland where they reached their largest audience to date, with 5,000 people, the band released the album Ride the Lightening with Megaforce Records in 1984, which received critical acclaim for its melodic sound.

“1991 – Release of the ‘The Black Album'”

After this work, the band released Master of Puppets in 1986 and embarked on a promotional tour that was cut short by an accident in which the bassist Cliff Burton died. After reflecting on their future, the band incorporated Jason Newsted and recorded …And Justice for All, an album with a denser sound that, despite its commercial success and a Grammy nomination, received criticism for being unoriginal and moving away from heavy metal. However, it wouldn’t be until the release of their album Metallica in 1991, known as The Black Album, that they reached great success, selling half a million copies in the first week of sales in the United States and reaching the top of the Billboard chart. This work led to two similar albums, Load in 1996 and ReLoad in 1997, which received negative reviews for their proximity to alternative rock and their distance from traditional heavy metal, disappointing their older fanbase.

“2001 – Documentary, Tours, Awards”

In 2001, Jason Newsted left the band and Metallica struggled to find a suitable replacement for some time. Therefore, they had to record their next album, St. Anger, with their producer Bob Rock playing bass. However, Robert Trujillo soon joined the band’s lineup. Three years later, the documentary Some Kind of Monster was released, which portrays the recording process of the last album and the internal conflicts that the band had with Dave Mustaine. After a tour in 2006 in which they played Master of Puppets again to celebrate its 20th anniversary, and the release of a compilation of their videos titled The Videos, Metallica was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Later, they released Death Magnetic in 2008 and the conceptual album Lulu in 2011, which was poorly received by their fans. In 2012, the band founded their own record label, Blackened, and performed a concert in Antarctica to raise awareness about polar melting and environmental crisis. In 2016, they released Hardwired… to Self-Destruct. Currently, the band is still active.

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Joaquín Sabina

Joaquin Sabina
Photo: Cfedericoccc / CC BY-SA 4.0

Biography of Joaquín Sabina

Joaquín Ramón Martínez Sabina (February 12, 1949) is a composer and singer of urban folk-rock, poet, and painter, widely known as Joaquín Sabina. He was born in Úbeda, Jaén, Spain. His mother, Adela Sabina del Campo, was a housewife, and his father, Jerónimo Martínez Gallego, worked as a police inspector. His family, being very Catholic, enrolled him in a school run by the Carmelite nuns. From an early age, the young Sabina demonstrated his ability in writing poetry and composing music. He formed a band with his friends called Merry Youngs, which mainly covered rock singers such as Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry, and Little Richard.

At that time, he had his first girlfriend, known as Chispa, who was the muse of many of his compositions and some love poems. From the beginning, the father, a notary from Úbeda, of the young woman was against this relationship. So, a few months later, they went on a series of adventures to be together. Joaquín and Chispa went to Granollers and then reunited to escape to the Aran Valley located in Lérida, where they lived together for a time. Sabina returned to resume his studies in a school run by the Salesian Order. He continued writing and learned about Fray Luis de León, Jorge Manrique, and José Hierro. He also read Marcel Proust, James Joyce, and Herbert Marcuse.

He received his first guitar from his father. After finishing high school, he obtained a job as a composer and director of a theater group in Granada. In 1976, he decided to temporarily reside in England, but later returned to Spain and settled in Madrid. During this period, he was closely associated with La Mandrágora, a bohemian art venue where he met Javier Krahe and Alberto Pérez, musicians. Sabina secured a contract with the record label Movieplay and in 1978 released his first album: “Inventario”. Then came “Malas Compañías” with the Epic label.

The previous album, which was a hit in 1980, achieved several successes thanks to the songs: “Pongamos que hablo de Madrid”, “Calle Melancolía” or “Círculos viciosos”. A year later, “La Mandrágora” was released, an album that was well received. His figure began to be compared and placed on the level of great established figures such as Ana Belén, Miguel Ríos, Javier Gurruchaga, Hilario Camacho, Juan Antonio Muriel and Los Secretos. He was invited to participate in the television program “Si yo fuera presidente” by Fernando García Tola and compose television theme songs for programs such as “Con las manos en la masa” and “Esto es lo que hay”. In 1985, he established his own label BMG-Ariola.

From his label came the album “Joaquín Sabina y Viceversa,” its release was promoted on television, but a controversy arose and the song “Cuervo Ingenuo,” performed by Javier Krahe, had to be censored for its reference to President Felipe González. From then on, several important productions were released that were well received among the Spanish audience, and even internationally, these were: “Hotel, dulce hotel” (1987), “El hombre del traje gris” (1988); with songs like “Con un par” from the album “Mentiras piadosas” (1990), and “Nos dieron las diez” from his next work “Física y Química” (1992).

Definitely, since Joaquín Sabina began his music career, he managed to attract the attention of a younger audience than his own generation and was established as a worthy heir to a throne occupied for a long time by the singer Joan Manuel Serrat. This was reaffirmed by the success of his following works: “Esta boca es mía” (1994), his famous song “Ruido,” composed by him and Pedro Guerra; “Yo, mi, me, contigo” (1996) was number one in sales, selling 80,000 copies in just one week. He then continued with “Enemigos íntimos” (1998), an album made with Fito Paez, which contains “Llueve sobre mojado,” composed and performed by both, and the memorable “19 días y 500 noches”.

He has been deserving of several awards for his musical career, receiving the Ondas award for best Spanish artist at the end of the 90s. He was also the winner of the Spanish Music Awards for best pop rock author, created by the Spanish Society of Authors (SGAE) and the Association of Performers or Performers (AIE). He also had a productive and successful tour throughout Spain and Latin America where he shared the theme “19 días y 500 noches”, presented “Nos sobran los motivos” (2000).

Upon his return, he worked on “Ciento volando,” a book of sonnets inspired and dedicated to filmmakers, actors, writers, bullfighters and singers. Unfortunately, Sabina suffered a cerebral ischemia that prevented him from being on stage for several months. After his recovery, he released “Dímelo en la calle” (2002) and published a book with his entire songbook, “Con buena letra” (2002). At that time, he devoted time to writing and published “Ciento volando de catorce,” selling 150,000 copies. Between 2005 and 2006, he released the album “Alivio de luto.” Shortly thereafter, he gave a recital at the Madrid Conference Center. In the summer of 2006, he embarked on a tour called “Carretera y top manta.”

After several years away from the music scene, in 2011, the singer began the tour “El penúltimo tren” in various countries of Latin America, this would also be held for the first time in the United States. But due to acute diverticulitis, it had to be suspended until October at the Manhattan Center in New York. He was also at the “Músicos en la naturaleza” festival, held in Hoyos del Espino. He embarked on a tour where he presented his musical work with Joan Manuel Serrat: “La orquesta del Titanic.” In 2013, he published the book “Muy personal,” which included drawings, poems, and fragments of song lyrics. After several successful projects, such as “Garabatos,” he released his album “Lo niego todo” in 2017.

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