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Nelson Mandela

Biography of Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela Biography

Rolihlahla Mandela, whose original name Xhosa means “pull the branch of a tree” (interpreted by the natives as “troublemaker”), and universally known as Nelson Mandela or Madiba, was a South African lawyer, anti-apartheid activist, politician and philanthropist. Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, in the small town of Mvezo located in Cape Province, located on the banks of the Mbashe River, near Umtata. Son of Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, tribal chief, and adviser to the monarch of Tembuland. His mother named Nosekeni Fanny, a member of the Xhosa amaMpemvu clan was the third wife of Gadla and belonging to the lineage of the House of the right hand.

The first years of Nelson were determined by custom, ritual, and taboo. He grew up with two sisters in his mother’s kraal, and at the age of seven, he was sent by his mother to a Methodist school. According to the Foundation that bears his name, he said that the name of “Nelson” came from his teacher Miss Mdingane, who called him that the first day of class in the school of the village of Qunu and it is still unknown why he chose that name particularly.

After Nelson Mandela’s father passed away, his mother took him to the palace of Mqhekezweni where he was placed under the curatorship of the regent Jongintaba Daindyebo and his wife Noengland, for many years he did not see his mother. However, together with Jongintaba and his wife he felt very well since they treated him like his own son. Mandela attended religious services every Sunday, Christianity became an important part of his life. In addition, he went to a Methodist mission near the palace where he studied the English language and Xhosa as well as history and geography, from those years, began his love for African history.

“The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.”

In 1939, Nelson Mandela entered the University of Fort Hare, the only center of higher education for Black people in the country, at that time. In 1940, his studies were interrupted for supporting a student protest at the university that confronted him with possible ejection from the school. He also decided to flee to Johannesburg, due to the decision of his tutor to marry him to a girl he was not in love with. When Mandela arrived at Johannesburg, he started working as a night watchman in the Crown mining complex where he was fired when they discovered he was a fugitive. He also came into contact with the African National Congress (ANC). At the end of 1941, he would receive the visit of Jongintaba who forgave him for having fled. A year later, Mandela would return to the University of Fort Hare and graduates in Law.

In 1943, Nelson Mandela resumed his studies of higher education, enrolling in a correspondence course at the University of South Africa, to which he devoted time at night. After he passed the exams to get his B.A. Mandela returned to Johannesburg to become a lawyer, which would help him get into politics.

When he began his law studies at the University of the Witwatersrand, Mandela was the only Black student and although he suffered racial discrimination he managed to become friend with many European liberalists and communist ideas, as well as Jews and Hindus, such as Joe Slovo, Harry Schwarz, and Ruth First.

In October 1944, he married Evelyn Mase, a CNA activist from Engcobo, who was studying to become a nurse. They had two children, Madiba Thembi Thembekile born in February 1945 and later in 1947, his daughter Mazowiecki was born but will die nine months later due to meningitis. This year he also helped found the ANC Youth League, with Tambo and with Walter Sisulu, in order to promote the racial equality. A year later, he would become general secretary and two years later, president.

In 1952, Nelson Mandela led the Defiance Campaign, exhorting Black people to violate the laws of racial segregation. He is found guilty under the law against Communism, and he is banned from attending meetings or leaving the Johannesburg area. He passes the exam to be a lawyer and together with Tambo, he founded the first Black lawyer firm in the country.

On June 26, 1955, the Freedom Charter was adopted, a document drafted in secrecy that demands the achievement of a democratic, free and multiracial society. On December 5, 1956, he was arrested along with 155 people and sent to trial for high treason.

Around 1961, Mandela and the rest of the defendants are acquitted of the high treason charge. He goes underground and creates “The Spear of the Nation” (Umkhonto we Sizwe), an armed wing of the ANC, from which he becomes commander and chief. A year later, he left South Africa and attended the Panafri Conference Canada of Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). He was also in Algeria where he received guerrilla training, then he would go to London. When he returns he is judged for the illegal abandonment of the country and sentenced to five years in prison.

In 1964, at this time many African colonies had achieved independence and Mandela is prosecuted for sabotage, he declares: “I am willing to die for my country to be democratic.”

On June 12, 1964, Judge Quartus de Wet found Mandela and other activists guilty and sentenced them to life imprisonment, they were sent to Robben Island, where they remained for 18 years. Mandela was confined in a damp cell, and with a palm mat to sleep. Despite being in prison Mandela was visited by well-known South African personalities.

Since 1967, the prison conditions improved, Black prisoners were allowed to wear long pants, authorized recreational activities and improved the quality of the food. Two years later, his eldest son died in a traffic accident. In 1973, the UN declared the Apartheid crime against humanity. By 1975, Nelson Mandela was already considered a class A prisoner, which allowed him to have many visits, receive correspondence and study. He began to write his autobiography which he secretly sent to London and although it remained for several years without being published, the authorities of the prison found several written pages of his book and took away his privilege to study for four years. This allowed him to devote that time to gardening and reading, until he resumed his studies for the Law Degree in 1980.

In 1981, the journalist Percy Qoboza launched the slogan “Free Mandela” which prompted an international campaign led by the United Nations Security Council, for his release. In April 1982, Mandela was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Tokai, a suburb of Cape Town, along with Walter Sisulu, Andrew Mlangení, Ahmed Kathrada and Raymond Mhlaba. The conditions of this prison were better, although Mandela missed the companionship and the natural space next to the island. On December 12, 1988, he was taken to Tygerberg hospital for having fallen ill with tuberculosis caused by the humidity of the cell. Once he was recovered, he is transferred to Víctor Verster prison with better conditions. On February 11, 1990, he is released after 27 years in prison, and on March 2nd of the same year, he is elected Vice President of the ANC. By June 17, 1991, after more than four decades, the parliament of South Africa repealed the law on racial segregation of the population.

On July 6, 1991, Mandela would be appointed as the president of the African National Congress (ANC) by acclamation and be the successor of Oliver Tambo. On May 15, 1992, he received the Prince of Asturias of International Cooperation. A year later, he received the Nobel Peace Prize. On April 26, 1994, the first free elections of South Africa were held. Twenty million citizens exercised their right to vote for the first time, ending up with more than three hundred years of white domination granting Mandela 62.6% of the votes, and on May 10, 1994, Mandela would become the first black president in the history of South Africa. Mandela initiated a reconstruction and development plan improving the living standards of black South Africans in issues such as education, housing, health and employment. He also promoted a new constitution for the country that finally the parliament approved in 1996. In the same year, his autobiography “A long walk to freedom” was published.

Also in 1996, he divorced Winnie and in 1998 he married again. In March 1999, suffering from prostate cancer, he said goodbye to the parliament, naming Thabo Mbeki as the new president. When he retired from political life in June 1999, he dedicated himself to the orientation of various humanitarian causes.

In 2003, the Mandela Foundation launched a major international campaign to raise funds for the fight against AIDS. In 2008, the world celebrated his 90th anniversary with an appeal for peace. London paid tribute to him with a macro concert. A year later, the UN declares July 18th as his International Day. In 2010, on the 20th anniversary of Mandela’s release, he published “Conversations with myself”. That same year the tragedy touched him again when his 13-year-old great-granddaughter Zenani died in a traffic accident.

After suffering a prolonged respiratory infection, Nelson Mandela died on 5 December 2013 at the age of 95 years at his home in Houghton, Johannesburg (Republic of South Africa), surrounded by his family in particular his eldest daughter Makaziwe Mandela.

Before he died, Mandela said: “Death is something inevitable. When a man has done what he considers his duty to his people and his country, may rest in peace. I believe that I have made that effort and, therefore, I will sleep for all eternity.”

Few men have changed the course of history, as Nelson Mandela did, a tireless fighter, considered a global symbol of “Freedom and Hope” who despite spending 27 years in prison, managed to defeat the racist regime of apartheid, one of the most ruthless of the twentieth century. He was the first Democratic President of South Africa and marked the end of racial segregation in his country through a policy of reconciliation and Social Justice.

“Education is the most powerful weapon in the world.” Nelson Mandela.



  • Lenin Peace Prize (1990).
  • Bharat Ratna (1990).
  • Prince of Asturias Award for international cooperation (1992).
  • Nobel Peace Prize (1993).
  • honorary member of the Order of Meritby Queen Elizabeth II (1995).
  • Presidential Medal of the Liberty (1999).
  • 50 Honoris Juris Doctor in different universities around the world.
  • Nelson Mandela statue in Johannesburgo.


Written Works

  • How far we slaves have come! (1991).
  • Long Walk to Freedom (1994).
  • Let the freedom reigns: The words of Nelson Mandela (2005).
  • Nelson Mandela’s African Folktales (2002).
  • Conversations with myself (2010).
  • Nelson Mandela by himself (2012).


Nelson Mandela signature



The history of television


The history of television

The history of television begins in 1884 when Paul Nipkow designs the disc that bears his name. In the search for devices for the transmission of moving images, initially called phototelegraphy, the German Paul Gottlieb Nipkow patented the mechanical disc. However, due to its mechanical characteristics, it presented problems in its effective operation with large sizes and high speeds.

In 1900, the word “television” is born. This term was first used by the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi in a document read at the first International Congress of Electricity, held in Paris during the Universal Exhibition. It comes from the Greek word “Tele”, which means distance and the Latin “visio”, vision.

In 1923, the American physicist of Russian origin, Vladimir Kosma Zworykin, created the first satisfactory device for capturing images known as the Iconoscope. Later, American radio engineer Philo Taylor Farnsworth invented the image dissector tube, and these two inventions would later mark the beginnings of the electronic television system.

television old

In the same year (1923), the Scottish inventor John Logie Baird, after some inventions and experiments, perfected Nipkow’s disc using selenium cells, and in 1926 invented a mechanical television system incorporating infrared rays to perceive images in the dark. In 1928, experimental transmissions were made by Jenkins from Washington’s W3XK station. John Logie Baird’s system was refined, and that same year he made the first transmission of images across the Atlantic, from London to New York. After achieving these transmissions, in 1929 the BBC (British Broadcast Company) focused on the system developed by John Logie Baird and announced a regular transmission service of images. However, the interest shown in the invention was not very effective, as the BBC did not see a practical and concrete use for the new invention. Official broadcasts began on September 30, 1929, and on December 31, 1930, the first simultaneous transmission of audio and video was made, a milestone in the history of television.

Thus, at the end of the 1920s, the first broadcasts began, but it was only in the 1950s that the system was broadcast worldwide with black and white transmissions.

The BBC, CBS, and NBC in the United States were the first to make public television broadcasts, using mechanical systems. These programs were not broadcast on a regular schedule; it was not until 1936 in England that regular broadcasts were made and in the United States in 1939. All of these broadcasts were interrupted by World War II.

The inventions of Vladimir Kosma Zworykin revolutionized the system, the cathode ray tube and the development of the iconoscope led to the advent of color television and the creative competition to make it a success. Vladimir suggested standardizing the systems that were being developed worldwide, and taking the word of the Russian scientist, the United States created the “National Television System Committee (NTSC)” in 1940, which regulated the manufacturing standards for television mechanisms to make them compatible among different American companies. In 1942, the standardization of the system valid in the United States was achieved.

In the 1970s, a major event occurred that would forever mark the history of television, the advent of color was achieved, and its system quickly improved as technologies advanced and became more and more perfected with more channels and production companies. Starting in the 1980s, satellite television appeared, reaching a wide dispersal worldwide. For Latin America, from 1984, the use by Televisa of the Panamsat satellite for its worldwide transmissions, allows the Spanish signal to cover all five continents.

In the 1990s, signals from television productions and channels from around the world began to be received, giving access to different cultures, economies, customs, and events worldwide through this medium.

This process of positioning television as a means of communication and entertainment throughout its history shows a development with technological advances that has become a very important medium for society and its convergence with other related media. All this has had an impact on the improvement of television operation until today, being comfortable and versatile for all of us. Since 2012, the most popular TVs are 3D and touch with motion sensors.

The World Television Day is celebrated on November 21st in commemoration of the date of the first World Television Forum in 1996 at the United Nations.

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The history of accounting

History of accounting

The history of accounting

Accounting originated in ancient times when people needed to keep records and controls of their properties. They had to find a way to record certain arithmetic calculations that were frequently repeated and too complex to keep in their heads. Since the earliest civilizations, rudimentary arithmetic operations were performed, and many of these operations led to the creation of auxiliary elements to count, add, and subtract, etc. taking into account units of time such as the year, months, and days. As an example of these activities, money was created as the only exchange instrument.

The Phoenicians, skilled traders and excellent navigators, from 1,100 BC onwards, were perfecting the accounting systems implemented by the Egyptians, which were gradually disseminated. They were also known as the geniuses of trade in ancient times. It was from the 13th century that the first type of accounting by charges and expenses used by people in finance at the time began.

Throughout history, it has been shown that in ancient Egyptian and Roman times, accounting techniques were used that, in some way, basically constituted records of entries and exits of commercialized products. In Egypt, scribes were responsible for keeping accounts for the pharaohs, as they could record the lands and goods conquered.

In 1458, Benedetto Cotrugli referred to the double-entry system in his book “Della Mercatura Et del Mercante perfecto” where he indicated that every merchant should keep three books: (General, Journal, and Draft). He also suggested the convenience of making an annual balance based on the General book. His main merit was to lay the foundations for Fray Luca Pacioli to develop and perfect the graphic accounting method years later.

In 1494, Fray Luca Pacioli published his first work “Summa de Arithmetica, Geometría, Proportioni et Proportionalitá” (printed in Venice), where he set forth the fundamental principles regarding accounts and books. He explained everything about double-entry and also dealt with the accounting records of merchants. He was considered the father of modern accounting. During the 16th century, the progressive diffusion of double-entry accounting occurred throughout Europe.


Stages in the history of accounting:

The Ancient Age: Where man simply used his ingenuity to provide primitive methods that were recorded on a clay tablet. Since then, the evolution of accounting systems has not stopped its development.

The Middle Ages: From the 6th to the 9th centuries, the “Solidus” gold coin was accepted as the monetary unit, the main means of international transactions, and accounting registration was allowed through this homogeneous measure, achieving notable progress.

The Modern Age: In the early 19th century, the greatest author of his time, Fray Lucas Pacioli, was born, author of the work “TractusXI” where he refers to the double-entry system of registration and the commercial practices related to companies, letters of exchange, interests, etc. It explains inventory in detail as a list of assets and liabilities.

The Contemporary Age: It begins with the French Revolution in 1779 until today, where many changes occur due to the industrialization and commercial exchange of European countries. Another country that from the 19th century predominantly contributed to the perfection of accounting was the United States.

At the beginning of the 21st century, new concepts were introduced into the world of business, such as globalization, competitiveness, quality, productivity, strategic alliances, free trade, added value, and reengineering of administrative processes, which have increased the degree of difficulty in the operation of companies. In 1978, the accounting world welcomed VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet software in accounting history. Later, tools such as Excel and professional accounting software significantly simplified the workload.

Currently, thanks to technological advances, the phenomenon of globalization has led companies to manage a wider and more demanding market due to competition, this has made the accounting information system one of the main tools for decision-making. Accounting today goes hand in hand with technology, the computer market creates more and more financial programs and systems for the continuous improvement of accounting information in companies.

Cloud accounting

Since 2010, accounting has been present in the cloud through online accounting software. These programs, in addition to simplifying and automating processes, have allowed the integration of other programs such as electronic invoicing and continuous access to information, from any place and at any time, only with a secure Internet connection.

Some of the main accounting software are:

  • Wave
  • Senior Conta
  • AccountEdge
  • Siigo
  • Nubox
  • Alegra
  • Contasol

Although there are significant differences in accounting, especially between Anglo-Saxon countries and the rest of the world, the most widely used accounting method is still the double-entry method.


Accounting Schools of Thought

Since the 18th century – at the end of the Modern Age – various theories and trends arose that sought to give accounting a more scientific, economic and administrative character. This is how the so-called accounting schools of thought were born. Depending on the period and historical context, the following schools can be distinguished:

Classical Schools of Accounting Thought (18th, 19th and 20th centuries):

  • Accounting School: The first accounting school in history.
  • Theory of the Owner: Born in 18th-century Britain, it served as a precedent to the so-called agency theory.
  • Lombard School: Born in the 19th century in Italy and had Francisco Villa as one of its main exponents.
  • Personalist School: In this one, the patrimony is considered from a legal point of view; its main precursor was Giuseppe Cerboni.
  • Materialist or controlist school: Founded by Fabio Besta, this school opposed the schools that personalized accounts giving accounting a more economic character.

Economic Schools of Accounting Thought (20th century)

  • European Economic Neocontism: With Leo Gomberg as its greatest representative, in this school accounting aims at the economic activity of the company.
  • French Economic Neocontism: For this school, “value” is the cornerstone of accounting; its main exponents are Jean Bournisien and Jean Dumarchey.
  • European German Economic School: Derived from European neocontism, this school emerges in Germany with the publications of economists Friederich List and Wilhelm Roscher.
  • Hacendalista Economic School: Based on Gino Zappa’s hacendal economy, it links accounting with the economy of the company.
  • Patrimonialist School: Founded by Vicenzo Masi, this school sees the patrimony as the main object of accounting research.
  • American neocontism: It had among its main exponents Sanders, Hatfield and More, as well as Charles Ezra Sprague, William Andrew Paton, John B Canning and Henry W. Sweeney.
  • American deductive-economic school: Of positivist approach, this school appears in the golden age of pragmatic research in accounting.

Contemporary Schools of Accounting Thought

  • The Utility Paradigm: Increases financial information, new areas of accounting regulation appear, and a new consideration of the scientific nature of accounting emerges.
  • Current Empirical Research Approaches:
    • Inductive Positivist Approach: Studies accounting practices to induce the principles and foundations that support them.
    • Decision Model Approach (Predictive Capacity): Studies the impact of regulation on the market, the behavior of the market aggregate, and the incidence of accounting alternatives.
    • Behavioral Model Approach: From the inductive positivist approach emerges inductive neopositivism; subsequently, the economic value approach theory is born.


Great Figures

Accounting, as a discipline and profession, would not have progressed without the intervention of many people throughout history. From its beginnings in ancient civilizations to its study and professionalization, accounting has had great figures, including:

  • Luca Pacioli: Italian religious figure, father of modern accounting.
  • Edmond Degrange: Italian theorist, first to explain the relationships between accounts and the double entry mechanism. He conceived the Journal-Ledger system.
  • Francesco Marchi: Italian economist, follower of Degrange’s work, argued that accounting was the science of accounts and was the founder of the accountant school.
  • Leo Gomberg: One of the main exponents of European neocontism.
  • Edgar O. Edwards and Philip W. Bell: American economists, authors of the classic of 20th century financial accounting: The Theory and Measurement of Business Income.
  • Charles Ezra Sprague: American accountant, one of the first organizers of the accounting profession.
  • Dan Bricklin: Engineer, creator along with Bob Frankston of the first spreadsheet program, VisiCalc.


Rams of Accounting

  • Financial accounting.
  • Managerial accounting.
  • Public accounting.
  • Tax accounting.
  • Forensic accounting.
  • Project accounting.
  • Social accounting.
  • Auditing.
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History of Lucifer
Image of Åsa K by Pixabay

History of Lucifer

Lucifer, also known as Luzbel or Satan, is the fallen angel who, according to Christian tradition, was the original enemy and tempter of God. His name comes from Latin and means “bearer of light”, and in Ancient Greece it was used to refer to a morning star. Later, the Christian tradition adopted the name to represent the fallen angel, who, endowed with great beauty and intelligence, ultimately rebelled against God. His pride led him to be exiled along with the third part of the celestial court, resulting in one of the greatest cosmic dramas ever to happen. After being exiled, he adopted the name Satan and became the great adversary and embodiment of evil on Earth.


Luzbel, the most beautiful angel of creation

According to history, Luzbel was the most beautiful angel created by God. He was endowed with great beauty and intelligence, making him God’s favorite and the most suitable to organize and lead the rest of the angels. He had the complete trust of God, but this was not enough. Seduced by his pride, vanity, and feeling of superiority over God, he dragged a large part of the celestial court into rebellion, whose final consequences were the existence of evil, pain, and death in the world.

“How you have fallen from heaven, morning star, son of the dawn!” (Is 14.12)

Lucifer was then the cause of one of the greatest cosmic dramas ever to happen. Exiled for his rebellion, he became the first fallen angel, the ideologue of evil, and the first tempter. From then on he would be Satan, the instigator of the dark side, and the adversary of God. However, after being exiled, Lucifer could still enter heaven, according to Job:

“And the Lord said to Satan: ‘Where have you come from?’ Then Satan answered the Lord, and said: ‘I have been traveling the earth and walking on it. (Job 1:7; 2:2)'”


Thrown to Earth

The entrance to heaven was forbidden to him centuries later, during the time of Jesus. According to the Apocalypse, the sacrifice of Christ was essential in confining him to Earth. In Apocalypse 12 (The woman, the dragon, and the child), it is said that Satan was defeated by the blood of the Lamb and then thrown to Earth, along with his army, by the Archangel Michael. From then on, neither he nor his followers would have a place in heaven.

Despite the magnitude and importance of his history, Lucifer is little mentioned in the Bible, although there are numerous references to the demon, the Devil, and Satan, which for the Christian tradition is almost the same. It is known that he was mentioned in ancient Bibles, but over time he disappeared. His history is also full of contradictions and is little developed in Sacred Scripture. Some experts have mentioned that his myth comes from a misunderstanding or translation error, since his name, which in Latin means “bearer of light”, has been taken as a proper name.


Is Lucifer, the Devil and Satan the same thing?

In Christian tradition, Lucifer, the Devil, and Satan are the same entity, although their descriptions may vary in some aspects. In the Old Testament, Satan is mentioned as the enemy or adversary, with no relation to fallen angels or demons. Later, he became the representation of evil and the enemy of divine power.

In the New Testament, Satan appears as the Devil, although he is also known by other nicknames: Father of Lies, Evil One, Dragon, Ancient Serpent, Seducer of the Whole World, Prince of Demons, Beelzebub, among others. Lucifer, on the other hand, is not mentioned directly in the Old Testament, but appears as the “bearer of light” or “beautiful light”.

It is important to note that for Christianity, Lucifer is the name of the angel before his fall and Satan is the name he adopted after his fall.


The first and other fallen angels.

The fallen angels are those who have turned away from God after questioning him. As a result, they were banished from heaven and, in many cases, sent to hell. Depending on the source, there are two versions of the fall of angels: the biblical version in which Satan (or Lucifer) is the leader, and the version in the Book of Enoch, where 200 angels fall in total, led mainly by Semyazza.


The Watchers and the Book of Enoch.

In the version of the Book of Enoch, the fallen angels, known as “Vigilantes” or “Grigori”, were sent to Earth to care for humanity. However, they fell in love with the daughters of man and married them, knowing that this would condemn them. Their children, the Nephilim, are mentioned in the Bible as giant semi-gods.

“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.” Genesis 6

The fall of the angels was not primarily due to lust, but to the revelation of secrets and the estrangement from God caused by doubts and insults. Among humans, the Watchers began to teach the art of war and the creation of weapons, which caused an imbalance among the first human beings. Finally, tired of the abuses, God expelled them from Paradise with the help of the archangel Michael.

One of the first fallen angels was Lucifer, who, seduced by his vanity, competed against God and was banished along with a third of the heavenly court that had joined him. In the Book of Enoch, it was Semyazza who led the Watchers (Grigori) to take human wives and teach humans different arts and knowledge. Semyazza was the leader of the 200 fallen angels and one of the 20 Watcher leaders, to whom all had pledged loyalty.


Lucifer in film and television

In cinema and television, there have been many representations of the fallen angel. Examples include the television series “Lucifer” (2016-2021) based on the DC Comics character created by Neil Gaiman and the films “Constantine” (2005), “Pact with the Devil” (1997), “Rosemary’s Baby” (1968), and “Prince of Darkness” (1987).

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History of Administration

History of Administration
Photo by Benjamin Child on Unsplash

History of Administration

When inquiring into the history of the administration we must go back to the very needs of men to perform tasks in society. Although some historians try to trace the origin of the administration to the development of the first commercial activities on the part of the Sumerians and Egyptians, it should be noted that planning, organizing, and directing workgroup activities were already present from much more remote times, such as the case of the Paleolithic hunters.


The first vestiges of a stable social organization and therefore the first traces in the history of the administration date from the Paleolithic age, specifically in activities such as intensive hunting, which brings with it the collaboration of a social group, it is assumed formed by the “big family”; a sufficiently relevant and complex activity that required a direction and organization of resources. Since then, the hunter gradually evolved into a shepherd and a farmer, with the Neolithic revolution being a turning point in the origin and development of some concepts typical of the area of ​​administrative knowledge, since the transition from predator man to producer man implied a massive introduction of work as a daily activity, as well as the establishment of a structured social system.


Throughout time the farmer became a worker, first as a craftsman developing manual work, and then as a controller of machinery; since the industrial revolution and as productive activities intensified, in the same way, the difficulties between workers and employers increased, both due to incentives and the management of material resources, symptoms that gave way to what is known as the «scientific school of administration» Founded in 1895 by the contributions of Frederick Taylor, whose first objective was to face the problems of workshop management through scientific management, with contributions such as Taylor’s mental revolution, the development of the study of movements of the Gilbreth spouses, philosophy of direction of Henry Gantt, Emerson’s efficiency primes.

It was around these times that the history of administration was interwoven with the history of industrial engineering. As a result of the scientific school, the first five general principles of administration were considered:

  • Organized knowledge: Substitution of arbitrary rules for science. Work synergy: Harmony within the workgroups.
  • Achieve cooperation between human beings.
  • Work in search of maximum and efficient production.
  • Comprehensive development of workers


Already in the 20th century, what is known as the tertiary sector, also called office work, rapidly developed, which led to a change of approach from the hitherto developed administrative theory. In 1916, Henri Fayol divided business and industrial operations into six groups: technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting, and administration. This division is considered the starting point of classical management school.

For Fayol, the administrative function should only be aimed at the social body, while the other functions affect raw materials and machinery, the administrative function only works on the company’s personnel. Thus then the 14 principles of the classical management school were considered:

  • Division of labor.
  • Authority and responsibility.
  • Discipline.
  • Unity of command.
  • Unity of direction.
  • Subordination of individual interests to general ones.
  • Staff remuneration.
  • Centralization.
  • Scalar chain.
  • Order.
  • Equity.
  • Staff stability.
  • Initiative.
  • Team spirit.

In 1930, the following contributions had influenced the development and consolidation of the Administration:

  1. Methods Engineering – H.B. Maynard
  2. Cause-effect diagram – Kaoru Ishikawa
  3. Hawthorne Effect – George Elton Mayo
  4. Quality “statistical process control” – William Deming
  5. Toyota Production System – Taichi Ohno
  6. Total Quality Management (TQM) – Armand Feigenbaum
  7. Design of experiments – Genichi Taguchi
  8. Program Review and Evaluation Technique (PERT)
  9. Affinity Diagram – Jiro Kawakita
  10. Statistical Engineering – Dorian Shainin
  11. Quality Circles – Joseph Moses Juran
  12. Marketing Administration – Philip Kotler
  13. Modern Administration – Peter Drucker
  14. Total Productive Maintenance System – Seiichi Nakajima
  15. Socio-technical systems – Russell Ackoff
  16. Competitive Strategy – Michael Porter
  17. Model of Kano – Noriaki Kano
  18. Theory of Constraints – Eliyahu M. Goldratt
  19. Kaizen Method – Masaaki Imai
  20. Six Sigma – Mikel Harry
  21. Balanced Scorecard – Robert S. Kaplan
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History of gymnastics

History of gymnastics
Martin Rulsch, Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

History of gymnastics

It is a competitive sport that runs several modalities. Most of the modalities demand the athlete to be balanced, strong, flexible, agile, resistant and composed. The International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) is the organization in charge of regulating competitive disciplines. One of the countries that practices gymnastics the most is Spain, according to the 2010 CSD Sports Habits Survey. Specifically, the most popular is rhythmic gymnastics. This sport was practiced in Rome, for the first time. Gymnastics also contained several modalities, such as walking, horse riding, and other gymnastic exercises. On some occasions, the loser in the competition was thrown into the Tiber.


Gymnastics also expanded in Greece, but more inclined to exercises in circuses, although later it was transformed into gladiatorial fights.


The FIG has accepted six gymnastic modalities: artistic, rhythmic, trampoline, aerobic, acrobatic, and gymnastics for all. The first two are the most distinguished because they are part of the Summer Olympics. While, trampoline gymnastics has been part of the Olympic Games since 2000, a competition that took place in Sydney.

Disciplines within gymnastics

Artistic gymnastics: The gymnast performs a choreographic composition, in which he executes body movements at different speeds. This modality contains several modalities according to the male and female categories. Women can make use of several elements within the geographical composition: uneven bars, balance beam, foal jump, and ground, while in the men’s category they are rings, pommel horse, parallel bars, high bar, colt jump, and floor.


Rhythmic gymnastics: This modality combines elements of ballet, gymnastics, dance, and elements such as rope, hoop, ball, mallets, and ribbon can also be implemented. This category has a level of competitions and another of exhibitions, music, and rhythm are very important when executing movements. Rhythmic gymnastics can be performed individually and in groups. The score is over a maximum of 20 points.


Trampoline gymnastics: In this discipline, a series of exercises are developed in various elastic devices, here acrobatics is the protagonist. Within this discipline, there are three specialties: tumbling, double mini-trampoline, and trampoline, the latter being part of the Olympic Games, since 2000.


Aerobic gymnastics: It is known as sports aerobics, a routine of between 100 and 110 seconds is executed with high-intensity movements in addition to a series of elements of difficulty. The gymnast must develop continuous movements, where he tests flexibility, strength, and perfect execution in the elements.


Acrobatic gymnastics: It takes place in groups: male couple, female couple, mixed couple, female trio, and male quartet. Collective gymnastic demonstrations are held, jumps, figures, and human pyramids are performed.


Gymnastics for all: Gymnastics for everyone has some peculiarities; It is the only non-competitive gymnastics discipline endorsed by FIG. It can be performed by people of all ages and genders in groups from 6 to 150 gymnasts who perform choreography in a synchronized way. It is divided into three categories: white, blue, and red groups. The first is the basic category, the blue group is intermediate, and the red group the advanced. It is characteristic of general gymnastics to use uniform gymnastic elements and accessories to characterize a theme. This discipline may include dynamic activities and exercises from artistic, rhythmic, aerobic, acrobatic, trampoline, and dance gymnastics.


Best Gymnasts in the World

  • Yuri Chechi
  • Boris Shakhlin
  • Li Xiaoshuang
  • Maxi Gnauck
  • Fabian Hambüchen
  • Maria Guigova
  • Ludmila Turischeva
  • Dimitry Bilozerchev
  • Tamara Yerofeva
  • Oksana Chusovitina
  • Lilia Podkopayeva
  • Kohei Uchimura
  • Ekaterina Szabo
  • Daria Kondakova
  • Maria Petrova
  • Gervasio Defer
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