Nelson Mandela Biography
Rolihlahla Mandela, whose original name Xhosa means “pull the branch of a tree” (interpreted by the natives as “troublemaker”), and universally known as Nelson Mandela or Madiba, was a South African lawyer, anti-apartheid activist, politician and philanthropist. Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, in the small town of Mvezo located in Cape Province, located on the banks of the Mbashe River, near Umtata. Son of Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, tribal chief, and adviser to the monarch of Tembuland. His mother named Nosekeni Fanny, a member of the Xhosa amaMpemvu clan was the third wife of Gadla and belonging to the lineage of the House of the right hand.
The first years of Nelson were determined by custom, ritual, and taboo. He grew up with two sisters in his mother’s kraal, and at the age of seven, he was sent by his mother to a Methodist school. According to the Foundation that bears his name, he said that the name of “Nelson” came from his teacher Miss Mdingane, who called him that the first day of class in the school of the village of Qunu and it is still unknown why he chose that name particularly.
After Nelson Mandela’s father passed away, his mother took him to the palace of Mqhekezweni where he was placed under the curatorship of the regent Jongintaba Daindyebo and his wife Noengland, for many years he did not see his mother. However, together with Jongintaba and his wife he felt very well since they treated him like his own son. Mandela attended religious services every Sunday, Christianity became an important part of his life. In addition, he went to a Methodist mission near the palace where he studied the English language and Xhosa as well as history and geography, from those years, began his love for African history.
“The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.”
In 1939, Nelson Mandela entered the University of Fort Hare, the only center of higher education for Black people in the country, at that time. In 1940, his studies were interrupted for supporting a student protest at the university that confronted him with possible ejection from the school. He also decided to flee to Johannesburg, due to the decision of his tutor to marry him to a girl he was not in love with. When Mandela arrived at Johannesburg, he started working as a night watchman in the Crown mining complex where he was fired when they discovered he was a fugitive. He also came into contact with the African National Congress (ANC). At the end of 1941, he would receive the visit of Jongintaba who forgave him for having fled. A year later, Mandela would return to the University of Fort Hare and graduates in Law.
In 1943, Nelson Mandela resumed his studies of higher education, enrolling in a correspondence course at the University of South Africa, to which he devoted time at night. After he passed the exams to get his B.A. Mandela returned to Johannesburg to become a lawyer, which would help him get into politics.
When he began his law studies at the University of the Witwatersrand, Mandela was the only Black student and although he suffered racial discrimination he managed to become friend with many European liberalists and communist ideas, as well as Jews and Hindus, such as Joe Slovo, Harry Schwarz, and Ruth First.
In October 1944, he married Evelyn Mase, a CNA activist from Engcobo, who was studying to become a nurse. They had two children, Madiba Thembi Thembekile born in February 1945 and later in 1947, his daughter Mazowiecki was born but will die nine months later due to meningitis. This year he also helped found the ANC Youth League, with Tambo and with Walter Sisulu, in order to promote the racial equality. A year later, he would become general secretary and two years later, president.
In 1952, Nelson Mandela led the Defiance Campaign, exhorting Black people to violate the laws of racial segregation. He is found guilty under the law against Communism, and he is banned from attending meetings or leaving the Johannesburg area. He passes the exam to be a lawyer and together with Tambo, he founded the first Black lawyer firm in the country.
On June 26, 1955, the Freedom Charter was adopted, a document drafted in secrecy that demands the achievement of a democratic, free and multiracial society. On December 5, 1956, he was arrested along with 155 people and sent to trial for high treason.
Around 1961, Mandela and the rest of the defendants are acquitted of the high treason charge. He goes underground and creates “The Spear of the Nation” (Umkhonto we Sizwe), an armed wing of the ANC, from which he becomes commander and chief. A year later, he left South Africa and attended the Panafri Conference Canada of Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). He was also in Algeria where he received guerrilla training, then he would go to London. When he returns he is judged for the illegal abandonment of the country and sentenced to five years in prison.
In 1964, at this time many African colonies had achieved independence and Mandela is prosecuted for sabotage, he declares: “I am willing to die for my country to be democratic.”
On June 12, 1964, Judge Quartus de Wet found Mandela and other activists guilty and sentenced them to life imprisonment, they were sent to Robben Island, where they remained for 18 years. Mandela was confined in a damp cell, and with a palm mat to sleep. Despite being in prison Mandela was visited by well-known South African personalities.
Since 1967, the prison conditions improved, Black prisoners were allowed to wear long pants, authorized recreational activities and improved the quality of the food. Two years later, his eldest son died in a traffic accident. In 1973, the UN declared the Apartheid crime against humanity. By 1975, Nelson Mandela was already considered a class A prisoner, which allowed him to have many visits, receive correspondence and study. He began to write his autobiography which he secretly sent to London and although it remained for several years without being published, the authorities of the prison found several written pages of his book and took away his privilege to study for four years. This allowed him to devote that time to gardening and reading, until he resumed his studies for the Law Degree in 1980.
In 1981, the journalist Percy Qoboza launched the slogan “Free Mandela” which prompted an international campaign led by the United Nations Security Council, for his release. In April 1982, Mandela was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Tokai, a suburb of Cape Town, along with Walter Sisulu, Andrew Mlangení, Ahmed Kathrada and Raymond Mhlaba. The conditions of this prison were better, although Mandela missed the companionship and the natural space next to the island. On December 12, 1988, he was taken to Tygerberg hospital for having fallen ill with tuberculosis caused by the humidity of the cell. Once he was recovered, he is transferred to Víctor Verster prison with better conditions. On February 11, 1990, he is released after 27 years in prison, and on March 2nd of the same year, he is elected Vice President of the ANC. By June 17, 1991, after more than four decades, the parliament of South Africa repealed the law on racial segregation of the population.
On July 6, 1991, Mandela would be appointed as the president of the African National Congress (ANC) by acclamation and be the successor of Oliver Tambo. On May 15, 1992, he received the Prince of Asturias of International Cooperation. A year later, he received the Nobel Peace Prize. On April 26, 1994, the first free elections of South Africa were held. Twenty million citizens exercised their right to vote for the first time, ending up with more than three hundred years of white domination granting Mandela 62.6% of the votes, and on May 10, 1994, Mandela would become the first black president in the history of South Africa. Mandela initiated a reconstruction and development plan improving the living standards of black South Africans in issues such as education, housing, health and employment. He also promoted a new constitution for the country that finally the parliament approved in 1996. In the same year, his autobiography “A long walk to freedom” was published.
Also in 1996, he divorced Winnie and in 1998 he married again. In March 1999, suffering from prostate cancer, he said goodbye to the parliament, naming Thabo Mbeki as the new president. When he retired from political life in June 1999, he dedicated himself to the orientation of various humanitarian causes.
In 2003, the Mandela Foundation launched a major international campaign to raise funds for the fight against AIDS. In 2008, the world celebrated his 90th anniversary with an appeal for peace. London paid tribute to him with a macro concert. A year later, the UN declares July 18th as his International Day. In 2010, on the 20th anniversary of Mandela’s release, he published “Conversations with myself”. That same year the tragedy touched him again when his 13-year-old great-granddaughter Zenani died in a traffic accident.
After suffering a prolonged respiratory infection, Nelson Mandela died on 5 December 2013 at the age of 95 years at his home in Houghton, Johannesburg (Republic of South Africa), surrounded by his family in particular his eldest daughter Makaziwe Mandela.
Before he died, Mandela said: “Death is something inevitable. When a man has done what he considers his duty to his people and his country, may rest in peace. I believe that I have made that effort and, therefore, I will sleep for all eternity.”
Few men have changed the course of history, as Nelson Mandela did, a tireless fighter, considered a global symbol of “Freedom and Hope” who despite spending 27 years in prison, managed to defeat the racist regime of apartheid, one of the most ruthless of the twentieth century. He was the first Democratic President of South Africa and marked the end of racial segregation in his country through a policy of reconciliation and Social Justice.
“Education is the most powerful weapon in the world.” Nelson Mandela.
- Lenin Peace Prize (1990).
- Bharat Ratna (1990).
- Prince of Asturias Award for international cooperation (1992).
- Nobel Peace Prize (1993).
- honorary member of the Order of Meritby Queen Elizabeth II (1995).
- Presidential Medal of the Liberty (1999).
- 50 Honoris Juris Doctor in different universities around the world.
- Nelson Mandela statue in Johannesburgo.
- How far we slaves have come! (1991).
- Long Walk to Freedom (1994).
- Let the freedom reigns: The words of Nelson Mandela (2005).
- Nelson Mandela’s African Folktales (2002).
- Conversations with myself (2010).
- Nelson Mandela by himself (2012).
Nelson Mandela signature
Metallica is an American thrash metal band from Los Angeles and based in San Francisco. It is considered one of the leading groups in the subgenre and throughout its 35-year career it has won numerous awards, including 9 Grammys, 2 American Music Awards, 2 MTV awards, 2 Billboard awards, and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
1980 – Beginnings
The history of the band begins in 1980 when Lars Ulrich, the son of tennis player Torben Ulrich, placed an ad in the magazine Recycler looking for a guitarist for a metal band influenced by the British New Wave of Heavy Metal. James Hetfield responded to the ad and joined Ulrich as the first members of the band. Ron McGovney joined as bassist and Lloyd Grant as lead guitarist. With this first formation, the band recorded its first demo, Hit the Lights, considered one of the first thrash metal songs. However, they soon realized that the lineup was not working and Lloyd was replaced by Dave Mustaine.
Despite the early disastrous performances due to the lack of experience of the members, the band continued and released No Life ’till Leather, showing a more aggressive sound. Additionally, Ron McGovney was replaced by Cliff Burton as bassist and Dave Mustaine was replaced by Kirk Hammett due to his alcohol addiction. Since then, James Hetfield has taken on both the role of rhythm guitarist and singer.
1983 – Release of ‘Kill ‘Em All’
With this new lineup and having Johnny Zazula as their manager, the band released in 1983 Kill ‘Em All, which gained notoriety in the metal scene and sold more than 300,000 copies. After a tour of the United States and a concert in Holland where they reached their largest audience to date, with 5,000 people, the band released the album Ride the Lightening with Megaforce Records in 1984, which received critical acclaim for its melodic sound.
“1991 – Release of the ‘The Black Album'”
After this work, the band released Master of Puppets in 1986 and embarked on a promotional tour that was cut short by an accident in which the bassist Cliff Burton died. After reflecting on their future, the band incorporated Jason Newsted and recorded …And Justice for All, an album with a denser sound that, despite its commercial success and a Grammy nomination, received criticism for being unoriginal and moving away from heavy metal. However, it wouldn’t be until the release of their album Metallica in 1991, known as The Black Album, that they reached great success, selling half a million copies in the first week of sales in the United States and reaching the top of the Billboard chart. This work led to two similar albums, Load in 1996 and ReLoad in 1997, which received negative reviews for their proximity to alternative rock and their distance from traditional heavy metal, disappointing their older fanbase.
“2001 – Documentary, Tours, Awards”
In 2001, Jason Newsted left the band and Metallica struggled to find a suitable replacement for some time. Therefore, they had to record their next album, St. Anger, with their producer Bob Rock playing bass. However, Robert Trujillo soon joined the band’s lineup. Three years later, the documentary Some Kind of Monster was released, which portrays the recording process of the last album and the internal conflicts that the band had with Dave Mustaine. After a tour in 2006 in which they played Master of Puppets again to celebrate its 20th anniversary, and the release of a compilation of their videos titled The Videos, Metallica was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Later, they released Death Magnetic in 2008 and the conceptual album Lulu in 2011, which was poorly received by their fans. In 2012, the band founded their own record label, Blackened, and performed a concert in Antarctica to raise awareness about polar melting and environmental crisis. In 2016, they released Hardwired… to Self-Destruct. Currently, the band is still active.
Biography of Cleopatra
Cleopatra (69 BC – August 12, 30 BC) was the last Queen of Egypt, belonging to the Ptolemaic dynasty. She was born in Alexandria, Egypt. Her father was Ptolemy XII and her mother was Cleopatra V Tryphena. Cleopatra married her brother Ptolemy XIII, as a strategy to maintain the reign, then they both inherited the throne in 51 BC. Cleopatra is said to have possessed exceptional beauty. Her father was not well-liked by his people as he showed little interest in the problems of the Egyptian people, He was a corrupt ruler who squandered the kingdom’s money on lavish parties.
She was able to maintain her throne thanks to the Roman help she received in exchange for her continuous bribes and promises of various tributes. The Romans supported the king because he promised them easy access to the gold and wealth of Egypt. In each conflict, Rome played the role of arbitrator in the popular uprising, Ptolemy, went to Rome in search of military aid to suppress it. His wife Cleopatra and one of her daughters were left as regents of the country, then his wife died. The Alexandrians placed Queen Berenice IV on the throne and sent a delegation to Rome to arbitrate the conflict between father and daughter.
Soon after, Ptolemy XII was able to defeat the army of Archelaus, second husband of Berenice IV, and was returned to the throne. To ensure power, he had his daughter Berenice executed, it was the year 55 BC. The king died four years later, leaving the throne to his daughter Cleopatra VII Philopator and his son Ptolemy XIII Dionysus II. Cleopatra was the first of this dynasty to learn to speak the Egyptian language; she also learned Greek, Hebrew, Syrian and Aramaic and possibly Latin. She was also educated in literature, music, political science, mathematics, astronomy and medicine.
The situation in Egypt was becoming worse, farmers suffered severe famines, the Egyptian currency was weakening and the slow bureaucracy was hindering recovery: the country was becoming increasingly dependent on Rome. In response, farmers staged uprisings and created bands of outlaws that caused great harm; Additionally, the royal family also did not have good relations. Her younger sister Arsinoe, disagreed with her policy of helping the Romans and wanted to reach the throne. Ptolemy XIII, very young and manipulable, was practically handled by three advisors who forced him to expel his sister from the throne by overthrowing her with a command led by his advisors Potino and Aquilas.
Cleopatra attempted to regain power, gathering a good army for this purpose, although she did not succeed. Soon conflicts broke out between the two brothers and spouses, which led to the overthrow of Cleopatra. However, when the Roman civil wars began: Julius Caesar went to Egypt and helped Cleopatra in the conflict with her brother. During the Alexandrian War, both Pompey and Ptolemy XIII died, and the legendary Alexandria Library was burned.
Cleopatra was first and foremost a solution for Julius Caesar, and also his lover, she tried to use her influence over Caesar to restore Egypt’s hegemony in the Eastern Mediterranean as an ally of Rome; the situation intensified when she had a son with Julius Caesar: Caesarion. When Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, Cleopatra attempted to seduce his immediate successor: consul Mark Antony. Being allies, they imposed their force in the East, creating a new Hellenistic kingdom that managed to conquer Armenia in 34.
Cleopatra, in addition to being a skilled ruler, was also known for her beauty and intelligence. She was fluent in several languages, including Egyptian, Greek, Hebrew, Syrian, and Aramaic, and was well-educated in literature, music, politics, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. She used her charm and wit to strategically seduce powerful men in order to maintain control of her kingdom. She had a son, Cesarian, with Julius Caesar and later became the lover of Mark Antony. However, after the defeat of their alliance and the death of Antony, she was captured by Augustus and brought to Rome as a war trophy.
In the face of this situation, Cleopatra had herself bitten by an asp to end her life. Augustus took advantage of the situation to also murder her son Cesarión, thus extinguishing the Ptolemaic dynasty and later annexing Egypt to the Roman Empire. Cleopatra’s life inspired many writers, painters, sculptors and filmmakers. For example, between 1540 and 1905, over 200 plays, five operas and five ballets emerged. Let’s mention some important literary works: Cleopatra and Mark Antony (1606) by William Shakespeare, All for Love (1678) by the Englishman John Dryden and Caesar and Cleopatra (1901) by George Bernard Shaw. Even one of the comics of the popular Asterix the Gaul was dedicated to her.
Cleopatra has been the subject of many paintings and sculptures. Additionally, her life has been depicted in films, such as Cléopâtre (1899) and the famous and controversial 1963 production directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz: Cleopatra, starring Elizabeth Taylor. Another production, Marco Antonio y Cleopatra was released in 1972. A more recent, less ambitious film was Cleopatra (1999). Later, the British Museum dedicated an exhibition to Cleopatra, sparking an interesting debate about her beauty.
History of Grupo Firme
Grupo Firme is a musical group of Mexican regional music from Tijuana. It was created in 2014 and its members are: Eduin Cazares (leader and vocalist); Joaquín Ruiz (bass guitar); Jhonny Caz (vocalist), Abraham Hernández (second voice); Christian Téllez (bass); Dylan Camacho (accordion); and Fito Rubio (drums). Initially they made themselves known on social networks with some covers and in 2017 they made their debut with their first album Past, Present, Future. In 2018, their first hits, Pídeme, El Roto and Juro Por Dios came out and a year later they became famous with the hit El Amor No Fue Pa’ Mi, among other hits. Currently they are seen as the new fashionable group.
United by their love of music and coming from different parts of Mexico, the seven members of the group met in Tijuana. They grew up and began their careers in this city as members of different groups, although they knew each other from their work in the artistic industry. The founders of the group were Eduin and Joaquín, who coincidentally joined various groups before founding the group in early 2013 or 2014.
Joaquín and Eduin started in the group Reto Sierreño, then moved on to the groups Aventado2 de Tijuana and Los 4 de la frontera, and finally coincidentally joined the group Fuerza Oculta. This last group became, after some changes, the Grupo Firme, although it was initially called Grupo Fuerza. Because many groups had the same name, the members decided to opt for a synonym and chose “Firme”.
This is how Grupo Firme was born, with Eduin as the vocalist and leader, Joaquín on the bass guitar, Abraham and Jhonny as second voice, Christian on the bass, Dylan on the accordion, and Fito on the drums.
With the help of their manager and representative Isael Gutiérrez, who is also the head of the Music VIP Entertainment label, the group took its first steps in bars and events. At the same time, they made themselves known on social networks and other platforms by uploading covers of recognized artists, such as Los Tigres del Norte, José Alfredo Jiménez, Los Tucanes de Tijuana, and others. Often, the group uploaded songs at the request of the public, so they didn’t take long to have their own fanbase.
Grupo Firme: debut and career
In April 2017, after three years of performances and covers on social media, the group released its debut album, “Past, Present, Future”. This album consisted of twelve songs, highlighting “De Sol a Sol”, “Metas Cumplidas”, “Perdóname”, and “El de los Huaraches”. Although the album was not very successful, it managed to make the group known. A few months later, the group returned with “El Barco” (2017), a fifteen-song album with the tracks “El Bueno de Tijuana”, “Dile”, “Gente de Verdad”, and “La Interezada”.
In addition, that year, the group collaborated with Los Buitres de Culiacán Sinaloa on the album “En Vivo Desde Tijuana los Buitrones y los Firmes” (2017). Success finally arrived in 2018 with the singles “Pídeme”, “El Roto”, and “Juro Por Dios”. That year, the group was quite active, releasing singles, collaborations, and making several appearances. They even went to Colombia, where they were well received and recorded their “En Vivo desde Medellín Colombia” (2018). The album, which included the tracks “El Teclas”, “El Peña”, and “El Flaquito”, was quite popular within and outside of Mexico.
The group finally achieved fame in 2019 thanks to the releases of “Me Cansé de Amarte” and the hit “El Amor No Fue Pa’ Mí” (ft. Banda Coloso). Later came the successful “El Muelas”, “En Realidad” with Banda Coloso, “Lujos y Secretos” with Quinto V Imperio, and “Porque Te Quiero” with Luis Alfonso Partida “El Yaki”. They also released that year the singles “Qué Me Vas A Dar Si Vuelvo”, “El Panal”, and “A Ti Te Conviene” with Calibre 50.
The successes continued in 2020. The group began the year by releasing the single “La Estoy Pasando Mal”, and later collaborating with Enigma Norteño on the song “Mi Pretexto de Borracho”. Later they appeared on the single “Yo Diría” by Uziel Payan and collaborated with Marca MP on “El Güero”. In March, “Acábame de Matar” was released and in April they premiered “Quiero Pistear” with Luis Ángel “El Flaco”.
Their second live album, “En Vivo Desde Anaheim, CA”, was released in July of this year, including their biggest hits: “Pídeme”, “Que Me Vas a Dar Si Vuelvo”, “El Roto”, “Descuide”, “Porque Te Quiero”, “El Amor No Fue Pa’ Mí”, among others.
In 2022, the news is released that the band, Grupo Firme, breaks the attendance record with more than 280,000 people in Mexico City’s Zócalo. In this way, this renowned band surpasses the record that belonged to Vicente Fernández, who had 217,000 people. Prior to these last two, Justin Bieber and Shakira had the record, with the attendance of 210,000 people present in the Zócalo.
The history of television
The history of television
The history of television begins in 1884 when Paul Nipkow designs the disc that bears his name. In the search for devices for the transmission of moving images, initially called phototelegraphy, the German Paul Gottlieb Nipkow patented the mechanical disc. However, due to its mechanical characteristics, it presented problems in its effective operation with large sizes and high speeds.
In 1900, the word “television” is born. This term was first used by the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi in a document read at the first International Congress of Electricity, held in Paris during the Universal Exhibition. It comes from the Greek word “Tele”, which means distance and the Latin “visio”, vision.
In 1923, the American physicist of Russian origin, Vladimir Kosma Zworykin, created the first satisfactory device for capturing images known as the Iconoscope. Later, American radio engineer Philo Taylor Farnsworth invented the image dissector tube, and these two inventions would later mark the beginnings of the electronic television system.
In the same year (1923), the Scottish inventor John Logie Baird, after some inventions and experiments, perfected Nipkow’s disc using selenium cells, and in 1926 invented a mechanical television system incorporating infrared rays to perceive images in the dark. In 1928, experimental transmissions were made by Jenkins from Washington’s W3XK station. John Logie Baird’s system was refined, and that same year he made the first transmission of images across the Atlantic, from London to New York. After achieving these transmissions, in 1929 the BBC (British Broadcast Company) focused on the system developed by John Logie Baird and announced a regular transmission service of images. However, the interest shown in the invention was not very effective, as the BBC did not see a practical and concrete use for the new invention. Official broadcasts began on September 30, 1929, and on December 31, 1930, the first simultaneous transmission of audio and video was made, a milestone in the history of television.
Thus, at the end of the 1920s, the first broadcasts began, but it was only in the 1950s that the system was broadcast worldwide with black and white transmissions.
The BBC, CBS, and NBC in the United States were the first to make public television broadcasts, using mechanical systems. These programs were not broadcast on a regular schedule; it was not until 1936 in England that regular broadcasts were made and in the United States in 1939. All of these broadcasts were interrupted by World War II.
The inventions of Vladimir Kosma Zworykin revolutionized the system, the cathode ray tube and the development of the iconoscope led to the advent of color television and the creative competition to make it a success. Vladimir suggested standardizing the systems that were being developed worldwide, and taking the word of the Russian scientist, the United States created the “National Television System Committee (NTSC)” in 1940, which regulated the manufacturing standards for television mechanisms to make them compatible among different American companies. In 1942, the standardization of the system valid in the United States was achieved.
In the 1970s, a major event occurred that would forever mark the history of television, the advent of color was achieved, and its system quickly improved as technologies advanced and became more and more perfected with more channels and production companies. Starting in the 1980s, satellite television appeared, reaching a wide dispersal worldwide. For Latin America, from 1984, the use by Televisa of the Panamsat satellite for its worldwide transmissions, allows the Spanish signal to cover all five continents.
In the 1990s, signals from television productions and channels from around the world began to be received, giving access to different cultures, economies, customs, and events worldwide through this medium.
This process of positioning television as a means of communication and entertainment throughout its history shows a development with technological advances that has become a very important medium for society and its convergence with other related media. All this has had an impact on the improvement of television operation until today, being comfortable and versatile for all of us. Since 2012, the most popular TVs are 3D and touch with motion sensors.
The World Television Day is celebrated on November 21st in commemoration of the date of the first World Television Forum in 1996 at the United Nations.
The history of accounting
The history of accounting
Accounting originated in ancient times when people needed to keep records and controls of their properties. They had to find a way to record certain arithmetic calculations that were frequently repeated and too complex to keep in their heads. Since the earliest civilizations, rudimentary arithmetic operations were performed, and many of these operations led to the creation of auxiliary elements to count, add, and subtract, etc. taking into account units of time such as the year, months, and days. As an example of these activities, money was created as the only exchange instrument.
The Phoenicians, skilled traders and excellent navigators, from 1,100 BC onwards, were perfecting the accounting systems implemented by the Egyptians, which were gradually disseminated. They were also known as the geniuses of trade in ancient times. It was from the 13th century that the first type of accounting by charges and expenses used by people in finance at the time began.
Throughout history, it has been shown that in ancient Egyptian and Roman times, accounting techniques were used that, in some way, basically constituted records of entries and exits of commercialized products. In Egypt, scribes were responsible for keeping accounts for the pharaohs, as they could record the lands and goods conquered.
In 1458, Benedetto Cotrugli referred to the double-entry system in his book “Della Mercatura Et del Mercante perfecto” where he indicated that every merchant should keep three books: (General, Journal, and Draft). He also suggested the convenience of making an annual balance based on the General book. His main merit was to lay the foundations for Fray Luca Pacioli to develop and perfect the graphic accounting method years later.
In 1494, Fray Luca Pacioli published his first work “Summa de Arithmetica, Geometría, Proportioni et Proportionalitá” (printed in Venice), where he set forth the fundamental principles regarding accounts and books. He explained everything about double-entry and also dealt with the accounting records of merchants. He was considered the father of modern accounting. During the 16th century, the progressive diffusion of double-entry accounting occurred throughout Europe.
Stages in the history of accounting:
The Ancient Age: Where man simply used his ingenuity to provide primitive methods that were recorded on a clay tablet. Since then, the evolution of accounting systems has not stopped its development.
The Middle Ages: From the 6th to the 9th centuries, the “Solidus” gold coin was accepted as the monetary unit, the main means of international transactions, and accounting registration was allowed through this homogeneous measure, achieving notable progress.
The Modern Age: In the early 19th century, the greatest author of his time, Fray Lucas Pacioli, was born, author of the work “TractusXI” where he refers to the double-entry system of registration and the commercial practices related to companies, letters of exchange, interests, etc. It explains inventory in detail as a list of assets and liabilities.
The Contemporary Age: It begins with the French Revolution in 1779 until today, where many changes occur due to the industrialization and commercial exchange of European countries. Another country that from the 19th century predominantly contributed to the perfection of accounting was the United States.
At the beginning of the 21st century, new concepts were introduced into the world of business, such as globalization, competitiveness, quality, productivity, strategic alliances, free trade, added value, and reengineering of administrative processes, which have increased the degree of difficulty in the operation of companies. In 1978, the accounting world welcomed VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet software in accounting history. Later, tools such as Excel and professional accounting software significantly simplified the workload.
Currently, thanks to technological advances, the phenomenon of globalization has led companies to manage a wider and more demanding market due to competition, this has made the accounting information system one of the main tools for decision-making. Accounting today goes hand in hand with technology, the computer market creates more and more financial programs and systems for the continuous improvement of accounting information in companies.
Since 2010, accounting has been present in the cloud through online accounting software. These programs, in addition to simplifying and automating processes, have allowed the integration of other programs such as electronic invoicing and continuous access to information, from any place and at any time, only with a secure Internet connection.
Some of the main accounting software are:
- Senior Conta
Although there are significant differences in accounting, especially between Anglo-Saxon countries and the rest of the world, the most widely used accounting method is still the double-entry method.
Accounting Schools of Thought
Since the 18th century – at the end of the Modern Age – various theories and trends arose that sought to give accounting a more scientific, economic and administrative character. This is how the so-called accounting schools of thought were born. Depending on the period and historical context, the following schools can be distinguished:
Classical Schools of Accounting Thought (18th, 19th and 20th centuries):
- Accounting School: The first accounting school in history.
- Theory of the Owner: Born in 18th-century Britain, it served as a precedent to the so-called agency theory.
- Lombard School: Born in the 19th century in Italy and had Francisco Villa as one of its main exponents.
- Personalist School: In this one, the patrimony is considered from a legal point of view; its main precursor was Giuseppe Cerboni.
- Materialist or controlist school: Founded by Fabio Besta, this school opposed the schools that personalized accounts giving accounting a more economic character.
Economic Schools of Accounting Thought (20th century)
- European Economic Neocontism: With Leo Gomberg as its greatest representative, in this school accounting aims at the economic activity of the company.
- French Economic Neocontism: For this school, “value” is the cornerstone of accounting; its main exponents are Jean Bournisien and Jean Dumarchey.
- European German Economic School: Derived from European neocontism, this school emerges in Germany with the publications of economists Friederich List and Wilhelm Roscher.
- Hacendalista Economic School: Based on Gino Zappa’s hacendal economy, it links accounting with the economy of the company.
- Patrimonialist School: Founded by Vicenzo Masi, this school sees the patrimony as the main object of accounting research.
- American neocontism: It had among its main exponents Sanders, Hatfield and More, as well as Charles Ezra Sprague, William Andrew Paton, John B Canning and Henry W. Sweeney.
- American deductive-economic school: Of positivist approach, this school appears in the golden age of pragmatic research in accounting.
Contemporary Schools of Accounting Thought
- The Utility Paradigm: Increases financial information, new areas of accounting regulation appear, and a new consideration of the scientific nature of accounting emerges.
- Current Empirical Research Approaches:
- Inductive Positivist Approach: Studies accounting practices to induce the principles and foundations that support them.
- Decision Model Approach (Predictive Capacity): Studies the impact of regulation on the market, the behavior of the market aggregate, and the incidence of accounting alternatives.
- Behavioral Model Approach: From the inductive positivist approach emerges inductive neopositivism; subsequently, the economic value approach theory is born.
Accounting, as a discipline and profession, would not have progressed without the intervention of many people throughout history. From its beginnings in ancient civilizations to its study and professionalization, accounting has had great figures, including:
- Luca Pacioli: Italian religious figure, father of modern accounting.
- Edmond Degrange: Italian theorist, first to explain the relationships between accounts and the double entry mechanism. He conceived the Journal-Ledger system.
- Francesco Marchi: Italian economist, follower of Degrange’s work, argued that accounting was the science of accounts and was the founder of the accountant school.
- Leo Gomberg: One of the main exponents of European neocontism.
- Edgar O. Edwards and Philip W. Bell: American economists, authors of the classic of 20th century financial accounting: The Theory and Measurement of Business Income.
- Charles Ezra Sprague: American accountant, one of the first organizers of the accounting profession.
- Dan Bricklin: Engineer, creator along with Bob Frankston of the first spreadsheet program, VisiCalc.
Rams of Accounting
- Financial accounting.
- Managerial accounting.
- Public accounting.
- Tax accounting.
- Forensic accounting.
- Project accounting.
- Social accounting.
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