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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt Biography
Jacob H. Perskie (1865–1941) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Franklin D. Roosevelt Biography

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882-April 12, 1945) thirty-second president of the United States of America in the period 1933-1945. He was born in Hyde Park, New York, United States. His family was linked to politics for generations, he was a cousin of Theodore Roosevelt. His father, James Roosevelt, was a landowner and vice president of the railroad of Delaware and Hudson so the Roosevelt family enjoyed great economic privileges. The Roosevelt family was a traditional New York family. Roosevelt’s mother, Sara Ann Delano, came from a family of French Protestants. She was an extremely possessive mother, on the contrary, his father was always very distant.

Roosevelt had as a hobby horseback riding, practice shooting, fighting and playing polo and tennis. On several occasions, he made trips to Europe where he learned to speak fluent German and French. The Roosevelts were characterized for being a family that developed several philanthropic events. In his adolescence, he lived in Boston where he studied at the Groton School. Roosevelt graduated in 1900. He then enrolled at Harvard College, where he took courses in economics and graduated in arts. While at Harvard, his cousin, Theodore Roosevelt became president, was characterized by his reformist zeal.

Franklin was very attracted by the style of government that his cousin intended to implement, the former was key in the political life of Franklin. However, in 1903 he met his future wife Eleanor Roosevelt, niece of Theodore, and began a relationship with her. Roosevelt studied law at Columbia University but never graduated. Although he did not graduate, he began to work with Ledyard and Milburn, a prestigious Wall Street firm, where he practically exercised corporate law. But after several years decided to leave this profession to venture into politics.

Franklin aligned with the Democratic Party. In that sense, he was elected senator in 1911 and after a while he served as governor of the State of New York (1928), highlighting as a political banner the fight against poverty. But he had to absent himself from the political arena due to partial paralysis. In general, it was taken for granted that the shining heir of the Roosevelt Dynasty would never return to politics. But then he generated controversy when he returned and ran for the post of Governor of New York, winning the election with impressive success, as he resumed his political banner.

With this, he managed to present his candidacy for president representing the Democrats. Roosevelt won the 1932 presidential election by defeating Herbert Hoover; the US context was really a key to his anti-poverty policy reverberating in the minds of Americans. This moment was a historic milestone because it was the first triumph of the Democrats since the time of Woodrow Wilson. His campaign was a success in the middle of the Great Depression. Although it was very criticized by the businessmen, we can not say that his progressive policy was ineffective, it improved the economic panorama. For this reason, he was president for a period of more than 12 years.

We must mention that his most significant presidential term was in 1936, since that time he advanced the draft of the constitutional amendment that prohibited the third re-election as president, for which he was the only US president to govern for four consecutive terms. If we talk about his most representative project: New Deal, was created with the help of progressive intellectuals and technicians, this program intuitively applied the economic policy recipes of John M. Keynes. It promoted the intervention of the State to get the economy out of stagnation and to deal with the social effects of the crisis, although to achieve this it had to increase the public deficit and break the taboo of market freedom. From that moment the Welfare State in the United States began.

From his first presidential period he developed an agrarian reform, the Law of Industrial Reconstruction and the creation of the Authority of the Valley of Tennessee; an ambitious public works program. He also regulated labor relations in favor of workers, guaranteed freedom of association, created unemployment, retirement and disability pensions, and established the forty-hour work week and the minimum wage. These actions earned him much appreciation, credibility and popularity among the American population, generally the most unprotected. But this also generated opposition, some of its measures were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

Roosevelt managed to create a social security system and reform American capitalism in a modern sense, allowing the country to regain confidence. But, as the president expressed his greatest objective was the struggle for worldwide supremacy. He established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and established a good neighborly policy with countries such as Cuba, the Philippines, and Haiti. But, with the arrival of Nazi Germany, Roosevelt faced the dominant isolationism in Congress, launched the rearmament in 1938 and aligned the United States with the Allied side in defense of freedoms.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he prepared the American intervention in the war. The war economy that he set up mobilized all the resources of the country and ended up imposing its demographic and industrial superiority over Germany and Japan. Roosevelt took forward his project to create a United Nations (UN) and showed a conciliatory stance towards Stalin, but Stalin was reluctant. His wife, Eleanor, was always very important, he was a kind of political collaborator, Roosevelt suffered cancer that took his life while he was in negotiation, the president who replaced him was Harry S. Truman.

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Vicente Guerrero

Vicente Guerrero Biography
J. Sánchez / Public domain

Vicente Guerrero Biography

Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña (August 9, 1782 – February 14, 1831) was born in Tixtla, the current state of Guerrero, Mexico. Military and politician. He was one of the key figures in the Mexican independence movement. Guerrero joined the independence cause in 1810 when he fought alongside José María Morelos. After his death, he joined Agustín de Iturbide, with whom he created the Iguala Plan, through which the Independence of Mexico was established in 1821. His most outstanding actions were the capture of Oaxaca, the rebellion of Puebla and the Battle of the Barabbas Hill. After the fall of Iturbide, he supported the government of Guadalupe Victoria, whom he succeeded in 1829. During his short government, he abolished slavery in Mexico

Early years

Son of Juan Guerrero and María Saldaña, he was born into a family of farmers and muleteers, professions he learned from an early age. In parallel he studied under the instruction of private teachers. He began working as a muleteer when he was young, a job that led him to move throughout the region of the current state of Guerrero. While carrying out his work, the independence struggle led by the priest Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos broke out. The latter was commissioned to take the uprising to southern Mexico, a region in which the young Guerrero was. In the course of the Morelos campaign, a large number of young people joined the struggle for independence, these are Hermenegildo Galeana, who convinced Guerrero to join the Morelos campaign.

Military career

After joining the Guerrero campaign, he actively participated in the struggle in southern Mexico, standing out on the battlefield for his talent and skill, even though he had no knowledge of the art of war and the handling of weapons. For his outstanding performances he was appointed captain by Morelos, who at that time ordered him to be instructed in the manufacture of gunpowder, weapons handling and military strategies.

After the capture and death of Hidalgo, the command of the revolt was in charge of Ignacio López Rayón and José María Morelos, whom Guerrero continued to support. Along with Morelos, he participated in the Toma de Oaxaca, where his skills excelled, getting promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel.

Under the orders of Morelos, he was sent to support the troops that were in the southern coastal area. In the territory he collaborated in the conquests of Puerto Escondido and Santa Cruz de Huatulco, subsequently actively participated in the Taking of Acapulco. Towards the middle of the 1810s, he was part of the army that escorted the members of the Council to Tlacotepec.

Then supported the forces of Juan N. Rosáins and Ramón Sesma in Mixteca, where their strategies and surprise attacks were effective. For that same period, Morelos was arrested and shot, which deeply affected the movement, which by then had been decimated and was about to be suffocated. However, Guerrero continued fighting for the cause.

When Morelos died, Guerrero was in charge of the uprising which he led from the southern region, where he was fighting. By the end of the 1810s, the then viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca tried to convince the young military man to leave his arms in exchange for money, however, he refused.

In the first years of the 1820s, the situation of the independence army was difficult as soon as they could face the realistic troops. However, the situation changed when the liberal triennium (1820-1823) was established in Spain. The possible installation of a liberal regime in the colonies terrified the colonial elite, which since then began to conspire against the Spanish government. In this atmosphere of intrigues, Apodaca sent Agustín de Iturbide, to negotiate with Guerrero a pardon, but Iturbide knowing the situation of the country decided to change sides and fight with Guerrero for independence. Together, they created the Iguala Plan, a program in which they proclaimed independence and established the plan for the establishment of the Mexican Government.

Mexico’s independence

After the drafting of the Iguala Plan (1821), Guerrero and Iturbide headed with the Trigarant Army to Mexico City, which they entered with the support of numerous adherents in September 1821. When Iturbide arrived, he proclaimed independence and was in charge of the provisional government, which subsequently gave way to the establishment of a monarchical regime as had been proposed in the Iguala Plan. After the bases of the government were established, a letter was sent to Fernando the VII, in which independence was notified and this or a member of the royal family was invited to govern the Mexican throne. This proposal was rejected by the monarch.

Due to the response of the monarch, Iturbide was named as the Emperor of Mexico, a position he held between 1822 and 1823. This period was known as the First Mexican Empire. By this time, Guerrero opposed the new government, against which he fought in the uprising of General Antonio López de Santa Anna.

In the following years, he supported the Republican government of Guadalupe Victoria, which faced serious problems due to the struggle for power and internal tensions among supporters of the Republican government. After the election of Manuel Gómez Pedraza, Guerrero led the La Acordada uprising, along with Santa Anna, through which the annulment of the elections was requested, due to pressure the Congress dismissed Gómez Pedraza and proclaimed Guerrero as president.

Vicente Guerrero Presidency

He ruled between April and December 1829. During these months he sought to establish various liberal reforms. The first of these was the abolition of slavery on September 15, 1829. Subsequently, he proposed economic and social reforms. However, these had little effect due to the economic crisis that the country was going through.

In the course of his government he had to face the reconquest attempts by the Spanish monarchy. He also faced the coup d’état orchestrated by Santa Anna and Anastasio Bustamante. A short time later Guerrero was dismissed and Bustamante was appointed president. After trying to regain power, he was captured in Acapulco, put on trial in Oaxaca and shot in Cuilapan on February 14, 1831.

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Politics

Lori Lightfoot

Lori Lightfoot Biography
Taken from @Lightfootforchi. Link: https://www.instagram.com/p/BwvPptFnBfP/

Lori Lightfoot Biography

Lori Lightfoot (August 4, 1962) politician mayor of Chicago. Lightfoot was born in Massillon, Ohio, United States. Her father was a factory worker and janitor. She was the youngest of four brothers. She grew up in a neighborhood located on the west side of the city. She graduated from Washington High School in Massillon, there she stood out as a trumpet player of the school band. On the other hand, she was the point guard of the basketball team, editor of the yearbook and member of the Pep Club. She began her professional career at the University of Michigan in political science. From an early age, she was shown as a leader.

Lightfoot had to get part-time jobs to pay for her education because her family’s economic situation was not stable. Given this, her brother decided to take an incorrect path and advanced a bank robbery, but he was unsuccessful and got arrested. Lori received a full scholarship to study Law from the University of Chicago. She was president of the student body of the Faculty of Law, from that position she rejected a lot of racist and sexist acts towards the student body.

Career

Lightfoot entered the law firm Mayer Brown. During this time, she met several Republican politicians and defended several cases against racial discrimination. Lightfoot took her first steps in the public sector as Assistant United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. From that moment she decided to start her political career and began her campaign as Mayor, Lightfoot intended to represent the African-American community, many victims of Ku Kux Klan.

Lori Lightfoot participated in Operation Silver Shovel, an investigation carried out by the FBI to attack corruption in Chicago. Within the police institution, she carried out investigations in several cases of abuse of authority and improper conduct by the police. However, the disciplinary measures that were executed within the police department were questioned for not being effective and also being negligent. Lightfoot then worked at the Chicago Office of Communications and Emergency Management. Later Mayor Richard M. Daley appointed her Deputy Head of the Chicago Department of Procurement Services. Lightfoot worked a few months and later returned to Mayer Brown because she did not support corruption cases in City Hall.

In 2017, Lightfoot again assumed the position as president of the Police Board. At the beginning of 2018, Lightfoot announced her candidacy for mayor of Chicago, this would be her first candidacy for public office. Most notable is that she is the first LGTBIQ and African-American candidate in the history of the Chicago mayor elections. She competed against Gery Chico, Bill Daley, Susana Mendoza, and Toni Preckwinkle. Her campaign had strong support from LGBTIQ groups and local politicians, from the Chicago Sun-Times editorial committee. She also had the support of several former candidates, including Mendoza, Chico, Paul Vallas, and fourth-placed Willie Wilson also backed Lightfoot when she reached the second round. Lightfoot maintained a substantial advantage over Preckwinkle.

Lightfoot expressed in her mayor’s debate her personal experiences with racial discrimination and the worrying situations facing the black community.

Lightfoot new Mayor of Chicago

On April 2, 2019, she was elected mayor of Chicago. She won more than 73% of the general vote in the second round. She took over the office on May 20, 2019. She intends to meet the demands of citizens on economic issues and violence with firearms that take more lives than in other major cities in the United States. More than 550 people were killed in Chicago last year due to gang violence, with drug trafficking being the biggest reason, most black neighborhoods have notable economic and social realities. She also expressed her fight against police brutality and endemic corruption. The mayor of Chicago announced that ICE’s access to the Chicago police database would be suspended. She ordered the police not to cooperate with immigration agents “to attack immigrant families” and reaffirmed aid to the immigrant community.

Personal life

Lightfoot resides in the Logan Square neighborhood on the north side of Chicago. Her wife is Amy Eshleman, a former employee of the Chicago Public Library. The couple has a daughter named Vivian.

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Politics

Edmund Burke

Edmund Burke Biography
Public Domain: Studio of Sir Joshua Reynolds, oil on canvas, (1767-1769)

Edmund Burke Biography

Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729 – July 9, 1797) was born in Dublin, Ireland. Politician, statistician, and philosopher, considered the father of British liberal conservatism. Burke was one of the most prominent political figures of the 18th century. As of the end of the 1750s, Burke excelled in the political sphere, being appointed advisor and private secretary of William Hamilton. He was subsequently elected as a Whig Member of Parliament by the Wendover district, a position in which he stood out for his knowledge of natural law, criminal law and English Common Law. Before entering the political scene he became known for his writings, among which are: Vindication of natural society (1756), Philosophical research on the origin of our ideas of the sublime and the beautiful (1758) and Reflections on the French Revolution (1790).

Family and academic training

He was born into a religious family. His father was an Anglican and his mother was a Catholic. He was educated with his brother as an Anglican. However, being surrounded by the beliefs of his mother and sister, he was influenced by Catholicism. Towards the beginning of the 1740s, he entered Trinity College in Dublin, where he studied liberal arts. During this period he came into contact with the works of Greek and Latin classics, such as Cicero and Aristotle, which deeply influenced the young student’s thinking. In 1750, he moved to London, a city where he began his training in Law, going to the Middle Temple, after a short time he left the institution since he did not agree with the method of mechanistic teaching used in it, also criticized the materialistic pragmatism with which the institution was soaked.

Upon leaving the Middle Temple, he decided to focus on his literary career, publishing in the late 1750s, his first writing Vindication of Natural Society (1756), a pamphlet in which he mocks the libertine philosophy of the time. For this same period, he continued to acquire various knowledge about European law, Common Law and British law, he also delved into ancient and modern natural law, reading the work of Cicero, the Latin Stoics and Richard Hooker, British theologian considered one of the most prominent exponents of canon law of the Protestant Reformation period, author of The Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity Other figures that influenced Burke’s thinking were Sir Edward Coke, a prominent English jurist, who promoted the development of the English constitution, as well as Sir William Blackstone, jurist, and professor, author of the Commentaries on the Law of England. Burke’s thinking influenced the traditions of ancient and modern natural law, people’s law, English Common Law and positive law.

In 1757, he married Jane Nugent, with whom he had his son, Richard, who died in 1794. After marrying Jane, he published Philosophical Research on the origin of our ideas of the sublime and the beautiful (1758), a work in which delved into the foundations of the psychology of art and aesthetics, emphasizing the differences between the beautiful and the sublime, in the work the author rejects the old canons with which they were understood. That same year, Burke began to direct the Annual Register magazine, a magazine dedicated to the history, politics, and literature of the United Kingdom. Over time, the magazine included news and articles on all of Europe. In parallel, he began to write an Essay towards an Abridgement of the English History, written about English history that was published years after the writer’s death.

Political career

Towards the end of the 1750s, the prominent writer and political thinker was hired by William Gerard Hamilton, to serve as his political advisor and personal secretary. While exercising this position, Burke began to write Tracts Relative to the Laws against Popery in Ireland, based on his stay in Ireland, these texts were published after Burke’s death. In the middle of the same decade, he distanced himself from Hamilton and partnered with the minister, Charles Watson-Wentworth, Marquis of Rockingham, who hired him as secretary shortly thereafter.

In July 1765, he was appointed Prime Minister by King George III of Hannover, that same year he became a member of the House of Commons. In these years, the political thinker becomes one of the guides and representatives of Rockingham’s thought and the Whig party in Parliament. In the 1770s Burke joined the opposition and publishes Thoughts on the cause of current unrest (1770) and Conciliation with America (1775), written in which he called for reconciliation with the American colonies.

In 1780, his fight for Ireland cost him his seat in the Parlament. Eight years later he delivered the speeches at Westminster Hall, in the context of the debate that opened the impeachment against Hastings, during the trial of Burke’s reputation, he was deeply affected. At the beginning of the 1790s, he published Reflections on the French Revolution (1790), written in which he rejected the violence of the revolution, followed by Appeal from the New to the Old Wighs (1791); by this same period, he began to write Letters on a Regicide Peace, a work that ended in 1796. In 1794, he retired from parliamentary life and concentrated on writing. On July 9, 1797, Burke died at his country house, located in Beaconsfield, England.

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Military

Belisario Porras

Belisario Porras biography
Public Domain

Belisario Porras biography

Belisario Porras Barahona (November 28, 1856 – August 28, 1942) was born in Las Tablas, Republic of New Granada, and now Panama. Politician, military and writer, considered one of the most influential politicians of the first half of the twentieth century in Panama. He was president of Panama on three occasions. His first term was between 1912 and 1916, after the US intervention in Panama, which was linked to the interests of the country in the interoceanic canal. He returned to the presidency in 1918 and two years later he was elected president of the country, supported by his elite. In the course of his government, which was marked by the actions of the US government, he worried about improving the country’s infrastructure and economy.

Son of Demetrio Porras Cavero, lawyer and Juana Gumersinda Barahona, attended the first years of training at his native Las Tablas, later moved to Bogotá, where he carried out his secondary studies at the Colegio de San Bartolomé. In the 1870s, he entered the National University of Bogotá, where he studied law, later completed his doctorate in law and political science, graduating in 1881. Porras continued his training abroad thanks to a scholarship granted by the State, he studied at the University of Leuven in Belgium.

 

Career

After finishing his studies he returned to the country, and began to work as a journalist, for the same period he began to actively participate in the politics of the country, militating in the Liberal Party, a party that at that time had great influence in the country, which was ruled between conservatives and liberals, always in conflict.

His political thinking was influenced by Buenaventura Correoso, a recognized Panamanian military, and educator who ruled the Department of Panama when Porras was small. Towards the end of the 1890s the Thousand Days War broke out, confrontation initiated by the liberals against the conservative regime, during the development of this civil war the liberals were dominated by the force of the conservatives, without any chance of victory. The liberal side negotiated the end of the war through a series of treaties.

During the Porras confrontation, he actively participated in the battles, leading the entrance to the Isthmus of Panama, supported by the governments of Ecuador and Nicaragua, led by Eloy Alfaro and José Santos Zelaya; together they created a battalion of volunteers that invaded Panama, after facing the resistance he managed to take the department and proclaimed himself Chief Civil and Military of the Department of Panama, then appointed Emiliano J. Herrera Chief of Military Operations. However, in July 1900 the liberals of Panama were defeated in the confrontation known as Battle of the Calidonia Bridge (July 24, 1900).

Due to the triumph of the conservative Porras, he was forced into exile in El Salvador. Later, he took refuge in Nicaragua. While residing abroad he worked as a professor of Law and Geography, at the same time he collaborated in several publications in which his political militancy was reflected. During his stay, he also associated with the liberal parties of El Salvador and Nicaragua. In the course of these years, the Department of Panama separated from the Republic of Colombia, an event that marked the history of Colombia. The separation was due to various reasons, among these, the interests of the US government in Panama influenced, specifically in the construction of the interoceanic canal; Porras did not agree with the separation, he saw it as one of the most serious offenses to the sovereignty of the State, he also disagreed with the signing of the Hay-Buneau Varilla treaties, through which certain privileges were given to the United States government in the country.

By 1904 he returned to Panama where he began his political career being elected councilor. However, his career was hampered when his nationality was withdrawn due to his views on the separation of the isthmus. In 1907, he recovered his rights and was appointed delegate of Panama to the International Court of The Hague. In the following years, his career was consolidated, becoming one of the most prominent liberal politicians in the country, a popularity that allowed him to be a candidate for president in the 1910s, being elected as such in 1912.

 

Porras Mandates (1912 – 1916, 1918 and 1920-1922)

Porras ruled Panama in three periods, during which he tried to consolidate the Republic, which is why he is seen as the father of the Republic in the country. Throughout his government he managed the bases of the Panamanian nation, facing various obstacles linked to the actions of the US government in the country, which intervened and monitored for several years since its economic interests were at stake. During these years he also worried about the economy of the country, boosting trade, carried out various projects focused on improving the infrastructure of the country, also worried about the living conditions of citizens, creating projects that would improve these areas, such as Hospitals and schools. Towards the end of his last term, the military confrontation known as the Coto War (1921) was carried out, a contest in which Panama and Costa Rica met. After a long and outstanding political career, the Panamanian died on August 28, 1942, in Panama.

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Author

Jacques Pierre Brissot

Jacques Pierre Brissot Biography
https://www.instagram.com/p/BpUrsEQn6SF/

Jacques Pierre Brissot Biography

Jacques Pierre Brissot (January 15, 1754 – October 31, 1793) writer and political leader. He was born in Chartres, France. He was also known as Brissot of Warville. He is recognized for leading the Girondins during the French Revolution. His father was a rich innkeeper of Chartres. Since his childhood, he was interested in languages ​​(Spanish, German and Greek) and law. After his law studies, he started working as a secretary for a Paris lawyer. Then, he began to devote himself to literary works selling his pen and his talent.

Brissot was attracted to Rousseau’s theories, many of his ideas were adopted at the legal level. In his work Philosophical research on property and theft (1780), he checks the above; identical allusions to the laws of nature and the same condemnation of property, specifically a robbery.

In 1788 he founded the Amis des noirs society, which seeks the abolition of slavery. He moved to the United States, frequented the Quakers there, and believed he had found a community perfectly n accordance with his ideal. In 1787 published his first comparative text: De la France et des États-Unis. He founded the newspaper (Le Patriote Français). He also was one of the boldest writers of the Old Regime.

Chief of the Girondins protested vividly against the attempt to present him as an enemy of all property, and, on January 1793, he opposed the decision by which the Convention unreservedly decreed the death of Louis XVI. Accused by the Jacobins, he was guillotined on October 31, 1793. His Mémoires Sur ses contemporains et la Révolution Française appeared posthumously. He was buried in the Magdalena cemetery, where his remains were kept until they were sent to the atoning chapel in Paris. In 1859, his body and those of all Girondins were transferred to the Catacombs of Paris.

 

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