Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, also known as Mahatma Gandhi, was a Hindu thinker, lawyer, and politician, born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, India. He was called against his will by the poet Rabindranath Tagore, “Mahatma” which means Great Soul.
Gandhi led India to independence from the British Raj without using violence. His name will be eternally associated with the doctrine of peaceful resistance.
Gandhi had a great influence since he was little, and he learned from a very young age to fast to purify himself, to not harm any living being, to tolerate other religious beliefs, and to be a vegetarian. He was the youngest of the three sons of the union between Karamchand Gandhi and Putlibai.
Gandhi was a withdrawn young man, silent and not at all brilliant in school. At the age of thirteen, his parents, following the Hindu custom, married him to a girl of his age called Kasturbai, with whom from the age of six he was already committed without having any idea.
In 1884, his father, Karamchand Gandhi, died, and his mother would die six years later.
As Gandhi’s school grades did not improve, in 1888, his family decided to send him to London to obtain a law degree; he was nineteen years old and had just been a father for the first time. In the English capital, he began to frequent the Theosophists, who initiated him in the reading of the first Indian classic, the Bhagavad Gita – which is part of the Mahabharata, the sacred book of the Hindus – which he would consider “the best book to find the truth” for the knowledge of the truth. In London, Gandhi also began to know about Christ, and for a time he was fascinated by the Christian belief and even hesitated between Hinduism and it. “The Sermon on the Mount” by Jesus inspired his ideals of nonviolence.
In 1893, Gandhi sailed to South Africa to work. Gandhi always said that the most decisive experience of his life, which led him to be a political leader of the first magnitude and a tenacious defender of human equality and fraternity, was while traveling on a train from Durban to Pretoria, in South Africa. In the middle of the tour, a white man entered his inn and ordered him to go to the baggage car, which was the place reserved for the “Blacks” Gandhi, who had a first-class ticket, refused. The man called the police and Gandhi was expelled from the train in the middle of the night. Since then, Mahatma Gandhi decided to fight against any form of colonialism and racism with the weapons of nonviolence.
After his work, Gandhi was about to return to India when he learned about the law to withdraw the right of suffrage to Hindus, so he decided to delay his departure for a month to organize the resistance of his countrymen. Gandhi trained his countrymen in the doctrine of Satyagraha (The Creed of Nonviolence). The Satyagraha would be edited sometime later to achieve the political force that showed in the fight for the independence of India.
Gandhi entered politics because he believed that religion was the foundation of everything and wanted to use his moral principles to all aspects of life. That is why he was so extreme in the defense of nonviolence, as his phrase shows:
“My national service is part of my training to free my soul from the bondage of the body.” Mahatma Gandhi
His way of thinking must have been influenced by his family and social context in which he grew up and developed. Despite his failures, Gandhi became one of the most important historical figures of the twentieth century. His example inspired several leaders that looked for freedom such as Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther King. Most of Gandhi’s ideas and practices continue to be analyzed and used throughout the world by environmental groups and anti-globalization organizations.
In 1906, he made his vow of sexual abstinence, and also he started a passive resistance and spent four months in jail. Seven years later, in 1913, he received another nine months in prison for the epic march of Natal (South Africa). After Gandhi left South Africa, the politicians who had battled strongly started admiring him. Even today, thanks to Gandhi’s legacy, the South African Indians enjoy privileges that the black population has not been able to achieve.
The return of Mahatma Gandhi to India in 1915 coincides with the outbreak of the First World War. It was then that Europe experienced the peak of the political violence of Hitler and Mussolini when Gandhi sowed in his campaigns of civil disobedience one of the greatest political successes of the twentieth century: the peaceful independence of India. Gandhi used his fine psychology, to his extensive knowledge of the British mentality: in the name of Fair Play, he renounces fighting against the English while the war lasts. While announcing his intention not to fight against England, he creates a farm in the city of Ahmedabad, an apparently almost monastic institution where he gathers his disciples. Wherever those peaceful communities of vegetarian mystics emerge, it appears later under the direction of Gandhi, a gigantic revolution.
Since the American Civil War, England is left without cotton and India becomes the first exporter of this product. India exports raw cotton and Britain converts it into cloth, thus giving work to the English working population. When an Indian purchases Western dresses, he is paying the price in gold for the cotton he grows. That is why Gandhi fought against the British textile industry; that is why he asked for the return of the craftsman yarn, which is why he forbids the use of Western garments. That is why he created the farm in Ahmedabad, that monasticism that is the powder keg of a great revolution.
The end of the First World War brought an essential change in the policy of British colonies. If in the Bihar campaign all the proposals of Gandhi had been heard in favor of the peasants, the scene was very different by 1919. Many Indians were imprisoned, and in the province of Punjab, a strong terrorist movement was organized. From that year Gandhi increased his political campaign, showing decidedly his intention to achieve independence.
Years after the massacre, Gandhi became the undisputed nationalist leader, achieving the presidency of the Indian National Congress. The great campaigns of civil disobedience were launched. Thousands of Indians filled the prisons and Gandhi himself was arrested in March 1922. Ten days later he started “the Great Judgment”; the British judge had to sentence him to six years in prison. Gandhi on the other hand, accepts “As an honor” the sentence. When he became ill in prison, in 1923, the entire European press launched a campaign in his favor, and the viceroy decided to let him go free.
The “Salt March” was Gandhi’s first great battle for independence. On March 12, 1930, in which, along with 78 worshipers, he left Sabarmati and traveled 390 km by walking for 24 days, followed by a growing number of admirers. He reached the sea and grabbed a handful of salt, symbolic act with which he invited the population to oppose the British monopoly of salt. Thus began the campaign of civil disobedience. And from the prison of Yervada, where he had been exiled again, he made in 1932 a “fast unto death.” The outbreak of the Second World War in the year 1939-1945. Britain pressured and exhausted by the United States, in February 1947 trusted the cousin of King George VI and great-grandson of Queen Victoria, Lord Mountbatten, the negotiation of Indian independence with Jinnah (head of the Muslim League) and Gandhi. In just seven months, India regained the freedom they had lost three centuries ago. Mahatma Gandhi had several attacks by fanatical Hindu and Muslim extremists. During his last days in Delhi he made a fast to reconcile the two communities, which was affecting his health. Even so, he left again in public a few days before his death.
On January 30, 1948, when Gandhi was addressing the crowd in New Delhi, Hindu extremist Nathuram V. Godse came up to him and took advantage of the confusion and shot him three times. Gandhi muttered “Hei, Rama” (Oh, God) and died.
THE NINE GUIDELINES OF THE SATYAGRAHA
- A Satyagrahi, that is, a civilian resistance, will not feel anger.
- He will suffer the rage of his opponent.
- By doing so, he will withstand the assaults of his opponent, he will never retreat; but he will not submit, for fear of punishment or something similar, to any order expressed with anger.
- When any person with authority tries to arrest a civilian resistant, he will voluntarily lend himself to arrest, and will not resist the theft of his property when the authorities want to confiscate it.
- If a civilian resistant has some property in his possession as trustee, he will refuse to surrender it, although in defending it he may lose his life. In no case shall he retaliate.
- No retaliation includes insulting and cursing.
- Therefore, a civilian resistant will never insult his opponent, and therefore he will not take part in any of the new insults that are contrary to the spirit of Ahimsa.
- A civilian resistant will not salute the United Kingdom flag, nor insult her or the officers, English or Indians.
- In the course of the fight, if someone insults or assaults an officer, the resistant civilian should protect said officer or officers from the insult or the attack even with his life.
“I am just a poor lost soul who strives to be totally good. ” Mahatma Gandhi
Robert Oppenheimer Biography
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was a physicist widely acknowledged as the father of atomic bomb. He was born in New York City, United States. Oppenheimer is renowned for his pivotal role in the development of the Manhattan Project during World War II, which culminated in the creation of the first atomic bombs.
Robert Oppenheimer was an American theoretical physicist, scientist, and university professor. He was the son of German-born Julius S. Oppenheimer and artist Ella Friedman. Coming from a wealthy and educated family in New York, his father was a Jewish owner of a significant fortune amassed through his textile factory. This allowed Oppenheimer to enjoy certain comforts and attend the best schools in the city.
In this regard, he was educated at the Ethical Culture School in New York, where he excelled as the top student, with some teachers even asserting that he was better than many of them. Upon graduating from school, he enrolled at Harvard University, where he stood out in all areas, from chemistry to Eastern philosophy, Greek, and Latin, completing his studies at the age of 21.
After some time, Robert Oppenheimer decided to delve into the world of physics, capitalizing on both his aptitude for the subject and its burgeoning prominence across Europe. He moved to England, where he worked with Ernest Rutherford and J. J. Thomson. Alongside these two great scientists, he felt somewhat inadequate, as he believed his performance did not meet the required standards. However, Oppenheimer did not give up.
With the passage of time, he learned from his mentors, and by 1925, feeling more adapted, he began researching atomic energy and secondary-atomic particle energy processes at the Cavendish Laboratory.
A year later, he was at the University of Göttingen, collaborating with Max Born to develop his classical contribution to molecular quantum theory, known in physics as the “Born-Oppenheimer method”. He returned to his home country to teach theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology and the University of Berkeley between 1929 and 1942. Oppenheimer was a highly political person. Therefore, in the 1930s, he decided to align himself with communist students to support the Republic during the Spanish Civil War, but certain actions led to the demise of his sympathy for the Communist Party.
Contribution to the Manhattan Project
The civil and political situation in Europe was becoming increasingly dangerous. By 1939, Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard warned the U.S. government about the dangers of nuclear energy falling into the hands of the Nazis. In response, President Franklin Roosevelt initiated the project for creating the atomic bomb, which was initially under military control, led by General Leslie Groves, an engineer known for overseeing construction projects, including the Pentagon. Later, Oppenheimer was brought on board to manage the administration of the project, which culminated in the construction of the atomic bomb by 1945.
Oppenheimer’s most significant contribution to the Manhattan Project was his leadership and effective coordination among diverse teams of scientists. His vision and problem-solving skills were crucial in overcoming the scientific and technological challenges involved in building an atomic bomb. He supervised the design and testing of the first atomic bombs, including the successful detonation of the plutonium bomb at the Trinity test site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945.
This American physicist had the support of many prominent figures in science, such as the great scientist Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, Wolfgang Pauli, Paul Dirac, and Enrico Fermi, with whom he also developed close friendships. The work carried out by these scientists on quantum physics provided significant support for his own research. He gained valuable insights into quantum and relativistic physics, which kept him abreast of new scientific developments. He made contributions to the application of quantum theory to the concept of electron spin.
In his role as the director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he fostered discussion and research in quantum and relativistic physics. In 1953, his past ties with the Communist Party led to certain defamation issues. As a result, he was called to a security hearing where the accusation was dismissed, but his access to military secrets was still prohibited. One of the institutions that attacked the scientist the most was the Federation of American Scientists. Oppenheimer was humiliated, and his communications were monitored. Nine years later, President John F. Kennedy, in an effort to rectify this mistake, awarded him the Enrico Fermi Award, granted by the Atomic Energy Commission, which he received from President Johnson himself.
“Now I Am Become Death, the Destroyer of Worlds”.
Oppenheimer, confessed to President Harry Truman, that he was not entirely comfortable with the fate of the atomic bomb. After some time, the Cold War erupted, and the Soviet Union announced its possession of an atomic weapon. In response, the United States decided to develop an even more powerful weapon. They approached Oppenheimer to lead the Atomic Energy Commission, but he declined the offer, resulting in his removal from the position. However, he remained the director at the Institute for Advanced Study, thanks to the support given by Einstein, Von Neumann, and Bohr.
After this event, his life took a different turn as he decided to distance himself from the laboratories and leaned towards writing about the studies conducted throughout his scientific career. Notable works include “Science and the Common Understanding” (1954) and a book related to electrodynamics (published posthumously in 1970). In the aftermath of the events in Japan and the grave consequences the atomic bomb had on humanity, he made several proposals aimed at internationally regulating the use of atomic energy to ensure peace.
He staunchly opposed the creation of the hydrogen bomb. However, despite his efforts and those of the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission, its development continued. Disheartened, Oppenheimer made the decision to retire from Princeton in 1966. A year later, on February 18, 1967, he passed away from throat cancer.
Visual works inspired by Robert Oppenheimer:
- “Fat Man and Little Boy” (1989): Oppenheimer was portrayed by Dwight Schultz in this film.
- “One Day” (1989): The scientist was portrayed by David Strathairn.
- “Oppenheimer” (2023): The biography of Julius Robert Oppenheimer was brought to the screen in this movie, based on the biographical work “American Prometheus” by author Kai Bird. The character of Julius Robert Oppenheimer was played by Cillian Murphy and directed by Christopher Nolan.
History of Threads
Threads (July 5, 2023) is an application and social media developed by the Meta group, designed to compete with Twitter. While it shares some features with Twitter, it has its own distinctive approach. This application has been specifically designed to share text-based updates and engage in interactive public conversations.
What is Threads?
Threads is a new application and social network created by the Instagram team, which is part of the Meta group, led by billionaire entrepreneur Mark Zuckerberg. The launch of Threads has had a positive impact on the market, as Meta’s stocks experienced an increase of nearly 3% during an unfavorable session on Wall Street. Furthermore, in after-hours trading, the stocks continued to rise, increasing by almost 1%. This indicates a favorable reception from investors and the market.
The application has been specifically designed to share moments through text-based updates. It provides a unique and standalone space for real-time posting and engaging in public conversations. With the new application, you have the opportunity to follow and connect with friends and creators who share your same or similar interests, including the people you follow on Instagram.
Threads has been developed with the aim of competing with Twitter and presents features and similarities that go beyond simple text sharing. Just like on Twitter, in this new app, users can create threads, share photos, videos, and links. The application is currently available for launch on iOS and Android devices. It is worth noting that currently, an Instagram account is required to access the app.
Mark Zuckerberg and his Meta team have taken advantage of the recent changes in Twitter following the acquisition by Elon Musk. Twitter has reduced some of its security options, reserving them exclusively for users who purchase Twitter Blue. Meta has identified this gap and has seized the opportunity to attract users to join Threads. The new application stands out for maintaining a wide variety of security controls and providing a safe experience for users.
“The idea is to build an open and friendly space for communities”- Adam Mosseri.
Differences between Threads and Twitter
- Threads currently follows the same security policies as Instagram.
- In Threads, it is not possible to save posts as drafts. You must share posts immediately or delete them.
- Threads does not have a set limit on the number of posts that can be viewed. There is no maximum limit on viewed posts in Threads, unlike the recent limitation imposed by Twitter of 600 posts.
- The new social media does not yet have direct messaging, unlike Twitter.
How to create an account on Threads?
To get started, you need to go to the mobile device’s app store and search for “Instagram Threads”. Once found, click on download and install the application. Once installed, open the app and access Threads using your Instagram username.
Next, complete your personal information and adjust the security options according to your preferences. Once this process is done, you will be ready to explore the application, change your profile picture, and start following people and topics that interest you.
It should be noted that automatically, anyone under the age of 16, or under the age of 18 in certain countries, their profile will be set to private when joining Threads.
When Instagram users sign up for this new social network, they receive a Threads badge on their Instagram profile. This badge displays a number indicating the sequence in which they created their account on this new app.
How is Threads used?
Threads offers a user interface similar to that of Twitter, allowing users to interact with other users’ posts from the “Home” section. Additionally, through the search icon, it is possible to find other users on this red social.
In the “Home” section, you will find posts from the people you follow, as well as recommended content from new creators that you have yet to discover. Posts have a limit of 500 characters and can include links, photos, and videos up to five minutes in length. Additionally, you have the option to easily share a Threads post to your Instagram Story or share it as a link on the platform of your choice.
To create a thread in this app, simply click on the notebook icon. Once you have written your message, publish it and continue with the text at the bottom. Just like on Instagram, the heart icon shows recent activity on your account, allowing you to see feedback and interaction with your posts.
Similarly, it is important to note that if you block an account on Threads, the same account will also be blocked on Instagram. This means that blocking actions are applied collectively on both platforms.
How to delete an account on Threads?
It is important for users to note that if they wish to delete their account on Threads, it is likely that their Instagram account will also be deleted. Currently, the only available option is to temporarily deactivate the account on this application, but it can only be permanently deleted if you delete your Instagram account.
Metallica is an American thrash metal band from Los Angeles and based in San Francisco. It is considered one of the leading groups in the subgenre and throughout its 35-year career it has won numerous awards, including 9 Grammys, 2 American Music Awards, 2 MTV awards, 2 Billboard awards, and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
1980 – Beginnings
The history of the band begins in 1980 when Lars Ulrich, the son of tennis player Torben Ulrich, placed an ad in the magazine Recycler looking for a guitarist for a metal band influenced by the British New Wave of Heavy Metal. James Hetfield responded to the ad and joined Ulrich as the first members of the band. Ron McGovney joined as bassist and Lloyd Grant as lead guitarist. With this first formation, the band recorded its first demo, Hit the Lights, considered one of the first thrash metal songs. However, they soon realized that the lineup was not working and Lloyd was replaced by Dave Mustaine.
Despite the early disastrous performances due to the lack of experience of the members, the band continued and released No Life ’till Leather, showing a more aggressive sound. Additionally, Ron McGovney was replaced by Cliff Burton as bassist and Dave Mustaine was replaced by Kirk Hammett due to his alcohol addiction. Since then, James Hetfield has taken on both the role of rhythm guitarist and singer.
1983 – Release of ‘Kill ‘Em All’
With this new lineup and having Johnny Zazula as their manager, the band released in 1983 Kill ‘Em All, which gained notoriety in the metal scene and sold more than 300,000 copies. After a tour of the United States and a concert in Holland where they reached their largest audience to date, with 5,000 people, the band released the album Ride the Lightening with Megaforce Records in 1984, which received critical acclaim for its melodic sound.
“1991 – Release of the ‘The Black Album'”
After this work, the band released Master of Puppets in 1986 and embarked on a promotional tour that was cut short by an accident in which the bassist Cliff Burton died. After reflecting on their future, the band incorporated Jason Newsted and recorded …And Justice for All, an album with a denser sound that, despite its commercial success and a Grammy nomination, received criticism for being unoriginal and moving away from heavy metal. However, it wouldn’t be until the release of their album Metallica in 1991, known as The Black Album, that they reached great success, selling half a million copies in the first week of sales in the United States and reaching the top of the Billboard chart. This work led to two similar albums, Load in 1996 and ReLoad in 1997, which received negative reviews for their proximity to alternative rock and their distance from traditional heavy metal, disappointing their older fanbase.
“2001 – Documentary, Tours, Awards”
In 2001, Jason Newsted left the band and Metallica struggled to find a suitable replacement for some time. Therefore, they had to record their next album, St. Anger, with their producer Bob Rock playing bass. However, Robert Trujillo soon joined the band’s lineup. Three years later, the documentary Some Kind of Monster was released, which portrays the recording process of the last album and the internal conflicts that the band had with Dave Mustaine. After a tour in 2006 in which they played Master of Puppets again to celebrate its 20th anniversary, and the release of a compilation of their videos titled The Videos, Metallica was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Later, they released Death Magnetic in 2008 and the conceptual album Lulu in 2011, which was poorly received by their fans. In 2012, the band founded their own record label, Blackened, and performed a concert in Antarctica to raise awareness about polar melting and environmental crisis. In 2016, they released Hardwired… to Self-Destruct. Currently, the band is still active.
Biography of Cleopatra
Cleopatra (69 BC – August 12, 30 BC) was the last Queen of Egypt, belonging to the Ptolemaic dynasty. She was born in Alexandria, Egypt. Her father was Ptolemy XII and her mother was Cleopatra V Tryphena. Cleopatra married her brother Ptolemy XIII, as a strategy to maintain the reign, then they both inherited the throne in 51 BC. Cleopatra is said to have possessed exceptional beauty. Her father was not well-liked by his people as he showed little interest in the problems of the Egyptian people, He was a corrupt ruler who squandered the kingdom’s money on lavish parties.
She was able to maintain her throne thanks to the Roman help she received in exchange for her continuous bribes and promises of various tributes. The Romans supported the king because he promised them easy access to the gold and wealth of Egypt. In each conflict, Rome played the role of arbitrator in the popular uprising, Ptolemy, went to Rome in search of military aid to suppress it. His wife Cleopatra and one of her daughters were left as regents of the country, then his wife died. The Alexandrians placed Queen Berenice IV on the throne and sent a delegation to Rome to arbitrate the conflict between father and daughter.
Soon after, Ptolemy XII was able to defeat the army of Archelaus, second husband of Berenice IV, and was returned to the throne. To ensure power, he had his daughter Berenice executed, it was the year 55 BC. The king died four years later, leaving the throne to his daughter Cleopatra VII Philopator and his son Ptolemy XIII Dionysus II. Cleopatra was the first of this dynasty to learn to speak the Egyptian language; she also learned Greek, Hebrew, Syrian and Aramaic and possibly Latin. She was also educated in literature, music, political science, mathematics, astronomy and medicine.
The situation in Egypt was becoming worse, farmers suffered severe famines, the Egyptian currency was weakening and the slow bureaucracy was hindering recovery: the country was becoming increasingly dependent on Rome. In response, farmers staged uprisings and created bands of outlaws that caused great harm; Additionally, the royal family also did not have good relations. Her younger sister Arsinoe, disagreed with her policy of helping the Romans and wanted to reach the throne. Ptolemy XIII, very young and manipulable, was practically handled by three advisors who forced him to expel his sister from the throne by overthrowing her with a command led by his advisors Potino and Aquilas.
Cleopatra attempted to regain power, gathering a good army for this purpose, although she did not succeed. Soon conflicts broke out between the two brothers and spouses, which led to the overthrow of Cleopatra. However, when the Roman civil wars began: Julius Caesar went to Egypt and helped Cleopatra in the conflict with her brother. During the Alexandrian War, both Pompey and Ptolemy XIII died, and the legendary Alexandria Library was burned.
Cleopatra was first and foremost a solution for Julius Caesar, and also his lover, she tried to use her influence over Caesar to restore Egypt’s hegemony in the Eastern Mediterranean as an ally of Rome; the situation intensified when she had a son with Julius Caesar: Caesarion. When Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, Cleopatra attempted to seduce his immediate successor: consul Mark Antony. Being allies, they imposed their force in the East, creating a new Hellenistic kingdom that managed to conquer Armenia in 34.
Cleopatra, in addition to being a skilled ruler, was also known for her beauty and intelligence. She was fluent in several languages, including Egyptian, Greek, Hebrew, Syrian, and Aramaic, and was well-educated in literature, music, politics, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. She used her charm and wit to strategically seduce powerful men in order to maintain control of her kingdom. She had a son, Cesarian, with Julius Caesar and later became the lover of Mark Antony. However, after the defeat of their alliance and the death of Antony, she was captured by Augustus and brought to Rome as a war trophy.
In the face of this situation, Cleopatra had herself bitten by an asp to end her life. Augustus took advantage of the situation to also murder her son Cesarión, thus extinguishing the Ptolemaic dynasty and later annexing Egypt to the Roman Empire. Cleopatra’s life inspired many writers, painters, sculptors and filmmakers. For example, between 1540 and 1905, over 200 plays, five operas and five ballets emerged. Let’s mention some important literary works: Cleopatra and Mark Antony (1606) by William Shakespeare, All for Love (1678) by the Englishman John Dryden and Caesar and Cleopatra (1901) by George Bernard Shaw. Even one of the comics of the popular Asterix the Gaul was dedicated to her.
Cleopatra has been the subject of many paintings and sculptures. Additionally, her life has been depicted in films, such as Cléopâtre (1899) and the famous and controversial 1963 production directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz: Cleopatra, starring Elizabeth Taylor. Another production, Marco Antonio y Cleopatra was released in 1972. A more recent, less ambitious film was Cleopatra (1999). Later, the British Museum dedicated an exhibition to Cleopatra, sparking an interesting debate about her beauty.
History of Grupo Firme
Grupo Firme is a musical group of Mexican regional music from Tijuana. It was created in 2014 and its members are: Eduin Cazares (leader and vocalist); Joaquín Ruiz (bass guitar); Jhonny Caz (vocalist), Abraham Hernández (second voice); Christian Téllez (bass); Dylan Camacho (accordion); and Fito Rubio (drums). Initially they made themselves known on social networks with some covers and in 2017 they made their debut with their first album Past, Present, Future. In 2018, their first hits, Pídeme, El Roto and Juro Por Dios came out and a year later they became famous with the hit El Amor No Fue Pa’ Mi, among other hits. Currently they are seen as the new fashionable group.
United by their love of music and coming from different parts of Mexico, the seven members of the group met in Tijuana. They grew up and began their careers in this city as members of different groups, although they knew each other from their work in the artistic industry. The founders of the group were Eduin and Joaquín, who coincidentally joined various groups before founding the group in early 2013 or 2014.
Joaquín and Eduin started in the group Reto Sierreño, then moved on to the groups Aventado2 de Tijuana and Los 4 de la frontera, and finally coincidentally joined the group Fuerza Oculta. This last group became, after some changes, the Grupo Firme, although it was initially called Grupo Fuerza. Because many groups had the same name, the members decided to opt for a synonym and chose “Firme”.
This is how Grupo Firme was born, with Eduin as the vocalist and leader, Joaquín on the bass guitar, Abraham and Jhonny as second voice, Christian on the bass, Dylan on the accordion, and Fito on the drums.
With the help of their manager and representative Isael Gutiérrez, who is also the head of the Music VIP Entertainment label, the group took its first steps in bars and events. At the same time, they made themselves known on social networks and other platforms by uploading covers of recognized artists, such as Los Tigres del Norte, José Alfredo Jiménez, Los Tucanes de Tijuana, and others. Often, the group uploaded songs at the request of the public, so they didn’t take long to have their own fanbase.
Grupo Firme: debut and career
In April 2017, after three years of performances and covers on social media, the group released its debut album, “Past, Present, Future”. This album consisted of twelve songs, highlighting “De Sol a Sol”, “Metas Cumplidas”, “Perdóname”, and “El de los Huaraches”. Although the album was not very successful, it managed to make the group known. A few months later, the group returned with “El Barco” (2017), a fifteen-song album with the tracks “El Bueno de Tijuana”, “Dile”, “Gente de Verdad”, and “La Interezada”.
In addition, that year, the group collaborated with Los Buitres de Culiacán Sinaloa on the album “En Vivo Desde Tijuana los Buitrones y los Firmes” (2017). Success finally arrived in 2018 with the singles “Pídeme”, “El Roto”, and “Juro Por Dios”. That year, the group was quite active, releasing singles, collaborations, and making several appearances. They even went to Colombia, where they were well received and recorded their “En Vivo desde Medellín Colombia” (2018). The album, which included the tracks “El Teclas”, “El Peña”, and “El Flaquito”, was quite popular within and outside of Mexico.
The group finally achieved fame in 2019 thanks to the releases of “Me Cansé de Amarte” and the hit “El Amor No Fue Pa’ Mí” (ft. Banda Coloso). Later came the successful “El Muelas”, “En Realidad” with Banda Coloso, “Lujos y Secretos” with Quinto V Imperio, and “Porque Te Quiero” with Luis Alfonso Partida “El Yaki”. They also released that year the singles “Qué Me Vas A Dar Si Vuelvo”, “El Panal”, and “A Ti Te Conviene” with Calibre 50.
The successes continued in 2020. The group began the year by releasing the single “La Estoy Pasando Mal”, and later collaborating with Enigma Norteño on the song “Mi Pretexto de Borracho”. Later they appeared on the single “Yo Diría” by Uziel Payan and collaborated with Marca MP on “El Güero”. In March, “Acábame de Matar” was released and in April they premiered “Quiero Pistear” with Luis Ángel “El Flaco”.
Their second live album, “En Vivo Desde Anaheim, CA”, was released in July of this year, including their biggest hits: “Pídeme”, “Que Me Vas a Dar Si Vuelvo”, “El Roto”, “Descuide”, “Porque Te Quiero”, “El Amor No Fue Pa’ Mí”, among others.
In 2022, the news is released that the band, Grupo Firme, breaks the attendance record with more than 280,000 people in Mexico City’s Zócalo. In this way, this renowned band surpasses the record that belonged to Vicente Fernández, who had 217,000 people. Prior to these last two, Justin Bieber and Shakira had the record, with the attendance of 210,000 people present in the Zócalo.
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Paul Allen biography Paul Gardner Allen (January 21, 1953) entrepreneur, business magnate, investor, and philanthropist. He was born in Seattle,...
Nik Powell biography Nik Powell (November 4, 1950) businessman and co-founder of the Virgin Group. He was born in Great...