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Madonna biography

Madonna biography

Madonna Louise Veronica Ciccone, known in the world of music like Madonna, is an American singer-songwriter, actress and businesswoman, considered the most important “Pop phenomenon” in the 80s and 90s and was called the Queen of Pop. She was born in Bay City, Michigan on August 16, 1958, and is the daughter of Silvio Anthony Ciccone and Madonna Louise Fortin. She was nicknamed “Little Nonni” to distinguish her from her mother. In 1963 her mother died of breast cancer.

Madonna attended elementary schools in St. Frederick and St. Andrew, and upon completion, at West Middle School. At school she distinguished herself by her high GPA, but reached notoriety for her unconventional behavior: she did somersaults and pirouettes in the corridors between classes, hung on her knees on the monkey bars during recess and lifted her skirt during the class, everything so that the boys could see their underwear. She was part of the team of cheerleaders and when she graduated she received a dance scholarship to the School of Music, Theater and Dance of the University of Michigan.

In 1977 Madonna moved to New York City with the aim of making a contemporary dance career. She worked as a waitress at Dunkin ‘Donuts and as a substitute dancer for other artists.

For the year 1979, she acted as a dancer for the French singer Patrick Hernández on his world tour. By that time she also had a relationship with musician Dan Gilroy, with whom she formed her first rock band called Breakfast Club, where she sang and played guitar and drums.

In 1980 she left Breakfast Club and with her ex-boyfriend Stephen Bray they formed the new Emmy band. Her music impressed the DJ and producer Mark Kamins, who arranged a meeting between Madonna and Seymour Stein, founder of the label Sire Records.

For the year 1982, Madonna signed a contract with Sire Records, a record label belonging to Warner Bros Records with which she released her first single called “Everybody” on October 6 of the same year.

In March 1983 the second single “Burning Up” was released. Both became successful in the United States, reaching number three on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Playlist. Later, she started working on her debut album “Madonna” produced mainly by Reggie Lucas. However, the singer was not happy with the finished tracks and had several disagreements with Lucas’s production techniques, so she decided to seek additional help.

At the beginning of 1984 two more singles called “Borderline” and “Lucky Star” were released. Little by little Madonna’s style, her dress, her performances, and her music videos began to influence women and girls, becoming a feminine fashion of the decade of the 80s.


MDNA Tour_Nice

Madonna achieved worldwide recognition after the release of her second studio album, “Like a Virgin” in November 1984 she topped the charts in several countries and that album became the first to reach number one on the Billboard 200. The song of the same name, “Like a Virgin” topped the Billboard Hot 100 list for six consecutive weeks. A year later, she married actor Sean Penn.

Like a Virgin was certified with a diamond disc by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), selling more than 25 million copies worldwide. In addition, in the month of April 1985, Madonna made her first musical tour of North America, The Virgin Tour, with the Beastie Boys as her opening act.

In June 1986, Madonna released “True Blue” her third studio album, which was inspired and dedicated to Sean Penn. Three singles on the album reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100: “Live to Tell”, “Papa Do not Preach” and “Open Your Heart.” In addition to two singles that were placed within the first five positions of the same list: “True Blue and “La Isla Bonita.” The album topped the popularity charts of more than 28 countries around the world. At that time she was the protagonist in the film Shanghai Surprise, which received several negative reviews, at the same time she made her theatrical debut in a production of David Rabe, Goose and Tom-Tom, both co-starring with Penn.

For the year 1987, Madonna’s second feature film entitled “Who is that Girl?” was published; Although the film was not well received, the performer contributed four songs to her soundtrack, highlighting “Who’s that Girl?” and “Causing a Commotion.”

In the month of June 1987 began the tour Who’s That Girl World Tour, which extended until September. In that same year, she released an album of remixes of past hits, entitled “You Can Dance” which reached the 14th place on the Billboard 200. In January 1989 Madonna divorced her husband.

For the year 1990 Madonna acted as Breathless Mahoney in the movie Dick Tracy. To accompany the movie, he released the band album soundtrack “I’m Breathless” which included songs inspired by the theme of the film set during the 1930s. It also included the number one hit in the United States, “Vogue” and “Sooner or Later.” In the month of November of the same year, she released the first greatest hits album entitled “The Immaculate Collection” in which she included two new songs, “Justify My Love” and “Rescue Me.” The album was certified with a diamond disc by the RIAA and sold more than 30 million copies worldwide, making it the best selling compilation album by a soloist in history.

In the year 1996, the premiere of the film Evita took place, in which Madonna played the role of Eva Perón. Madonna won a Golden Globe for best actress in a musical or Comedy for that role.

In the month of September 2000, she released her eighth studio album entitled “Music” which contained elements from the era of Ray of Light, inspired by electronic music and thematic about her personal life. Along with the release of that album, Madonna became involved in a romantic relationship with Guy Ritchie, whom she had met in 1999. On August 11, 2000, she gave birth to her son, Rocco Ritchie. In December, Madonna and Guy Ritchie were married at a private ceremony in Scotland.

Her fifth tour, titled “Drowned World Tour” began in June 2001. The tour visited cities in Europe and North America and was one of the highest grossing tours of the year. She also released her second greatest hits collection, titled “GHV2” coinciding with the release of the tour’s DVD. GHV2 debuted at number seven on the Billboard 200.

For the year 2002, Madonna wrote and interpreted the main theme of the James Bond movie “Die Another Day” which was nominated for the Golden Globes awards.

In 2003 Madonna released “American Life” which came along with her music video that was censored in the United States due to the visceral scenes depicting war, explosions, and blood.

For 2005, Madonna sang a cover version of the song “Imagine” by John Lennon and released her second documentary for television, entitled “I’m Going to Tell You a Secret.” That same year, she released her tenth album called “Confessions on a Dance Floor” and debuted at number one in all major music markets; with this album she won a Grammy Award for the best dance-electronic album. In the month of May, she began her tour “Confessions” around the world, which lasted until September 2006.

In 2007 Madonna released the song “Hey You” for the Live Earth concert series, performing in London.

On March 10, 2008, Madonna was included in the “Rock Hall of Fame.” In the month of April of that same year, she released her eleventh studio album, “Hard Candy.” The disc contained influences of genres like R & B and urban Pop and the letters were of more autobiographical nature, besides that it counted on the collaboration of Justin Timberlake, Timbaland, Pharrell Williams, and Nate Danja Hills.

For the month of April 2012, the singer launched the perfume “Truth or Dare” that she designed in memory of the smell of her mother and with which culminates one of her oldest projects.

The album, “Rebel Heart” was presented on March 10, 2015, and from August to December of the same year, it was dedicated to her promotion.



  • Madonna: 1983
  • Like a Virgin: 1984.
  • True Blue: 1986
  • Who’s That Girl: 1987
  • You Can Dance 1987.
  • Like a Prayer: 1989.
  • Dick Tracy: I’m Breathless: 1990.
  • Erotica: 1992.
  • Bedtime Stories: 1994
  • Selections From Evita: 1997.
  • Ray of Light: 1998.
  • Rock on Rom: 2000.
  • Music: 2000
  • Like A Virgin: 2001.
  • American Life: 2003
  • Confessions on a Dance Floor: 2005.
  • Hard Candy: 2008
  • MDMA: 2012.
  • Rebel Heart: 2015



  • 1980: A Certain Sacrifice.
  • 1985: Desperately Seeking Susan.
  • 1985: Vision Quest.
  • 1986: Shanghai Surprise.
  • 1987: Who’s That Girl?
  • 1989: Bloodhounds of Broadway.
  • 1990: Dick Tracy.
  • 1991: Shadows and Fog.
  • 1992: A League of Their Own.
  • 1993: Dangerous Game.
  • 1993: Body of Evidence.
  • 1995: Blue in the Face.
  • 1995: Four Rooms.
  • 1996: Girl 6.
  • 1996: Avoid.
  • 2000: The Next Best Thing.
  • 2001: Star.
  • 2002: Die Another Day.
  • 2002: Swept Away.
  • 2005: I’m Going to Tell You a Secret.
  • 2008: Filth and Wisdom / Director.
  • 2010: W.E / Director.



  • Billboard Music Awards for Artist Top Dance of the year 1985.
  • Billboard Music Awards for Artist Top Sales Dance of the Year 1985.
  • Billboard Music Awards for Artist Top Pop Female Album of the Year 1985.
  • Billboard Music Awards for Best Video Top of the Year 1985.
  • MTV Video Music Awards Award for Vanguard Video 1986.
  • MTV Video Music Awards for Best Female Video 1987.
  • ASCAP Film and Television Music Awards for Best Performance of a Song for a Film for “Live to Tell” 1987.
  • American Music Awards Award for Best Female Pop / Rock Artist 1987.
  • AIDS Project Award Los Angeles: for commitment to life 1990.
  • A Prize Merican Music Awards for Best Dance Song for “Vogue” 1991.
  • Grammy Award for Best Long Format Music Video for “Blond Ambition Tour” 1992.
  • Ascap Pop Awards to Song more interpreted by “This Used to Be My Playground” 1994.
  • Ascap Pop Awards to Song more interpreted by “You’ll See” 1996.
  • American Foundation for AIDS Research Award for the Foundation of Courage 1997.
  • American Moviegoers Awards for best actress 1997.
  • Grammy Award for the Best vocal pop album for “Ray of Light” 1999.
  • MTV Video Music Awards for Best Video of a 1999 Movie.
  • Recording Industry Association of America Award for Best Selling Female Rock Artist of the 20th Century 1999.
  • Grammy Award for Best Song written for a movie, television or other visual media by “Beautiful Stranger” 2000.
  • ASCAP Film and Television Music Awards for Best Performance of a Song for a Film for “Beautiful Stranger” 2000.
  • Ascap Pop Awards a Song more performed by “Beautiful Stranger” 2000.
  • Billboard Music Awards for the Billboard Music Awards for Top Dance Artist of the year 2001.
  • Billboard Music Awards to Song Top Hot sales Dance Maxi Single 2001.
  • Ascap Pop Awards a Song more performed by “Do not Tell Me” 2002.
  • American Music Awards Award for Best International Artist “Vogue” 2003.
  • Arion Music Awards Award for Best International Album for “Confessions on a Dance Floor” 2006.
  • Billboard Music Awards Artist Top Hot Dance Airplay 2006.
  • Arion Music Awards Award for Best International Song for “Hung Up” 2007.
  • Grammy Awards Award for Best Dance / Electronic Album for “Confessions on a Dance Floor” 2007.
  • Rock Hall of Fame 2008
  • Grammy Award for Best Long Format Music Video for “The Confessions Tour” 2008.
  • Billboard Music Awards to Artist Top Hot Sales Dance 2008.
  • VH1 Do Something Award! Awards for Style to Documentary Award for “Am Because We Are” 2010.
  • Golden Globe Award for Best Soundtrack 2012.
  • Billboard Music Awards for Best Dance Album for “MDNA” 2013.
  • Billboard Music Awards for Top Touring Artist 2013.


Paul Signac

Paul Signac Biography
Georges Seurat / Public domain

Paul Signac Biography

Paul Victor Signac (November 11, 1863 – August 15, 1935) was born in Paris, France. A Painter considered one of the most prominent exponents of neo-impressionism with Georges Seurat, a painter with whom he had a close relationship. Signac was born into a wealthy family which allowed him to devote himself fully to painting.

By the mid-1880s, he studied arts and honed his skills in Bin’s workshop. In the early years of his career, he became interested in impressionism, an artistic movement that continued until he met Seurat. Along with this he ventured into pointillism or divisionism, an artistic technique of which Signac is one of the most important exponents. In his works, he painted landscapes of southern France and other regions that he visited on his ship.

Studies and beginnings

Born into a wealthy family, he was able to devote himself to study and the arts without restrictions. In 1882, he joined the École des Arts-Décoratifs de Paris (School of Decorative Arts). For the same period, he attended the free workshop of Bin, painter, and politician, who was then mayor of Montmartre. In the course of the following years, he collaborated in the creation of the Société des Artistes Indépendants, founded in 1884. He was the vice president in 1903 and president six years later. He also participated actively in the creation of the Salon des Indépendants.

In 1886, he was part of the IX Impressionist Exhibition, along with renowned painters such as Seurat, Edgar Degas, Camille Pissarro, Jean-Louis Forain and Paul Gauguin. In these early years, his paintings reflected the influence of Pissarro, Pierre Auguste Renoir, and Claude Monet.


Towards the end of the 19th century, Signac began to lean towards the style proposed by Seurat, deepening the pointillist technique. In those first paintings, he painted the Mediterranean coasts and the banks of the Seine, lighthouses, coasts, among others.

In 1899, he raised his aesthetic ideas in the book De Eugène Delacroix to Neo-impressionism (1899), a work in which he defended the techniques of neo-impressionists. School that emerged in 1886 from the hand of Seurat and Signac. Camille Pissarro, Maximilien Luce Théo van Rysselberghe and Henri-Edmond Cross also participated in this.

Some characteristics of this artistic movement are the concern for volume, the development of shapes without defined profiles, the order in the composition and the use of pure basic colors, which when used in a pointillist painting would create an optical illusion that gives more luminosity in painting. This idea is based on the theory of the simultaneous contrast of colors by Michel Eugéne Chevreul.

Antibes – Morning, Paul Signac (1914)

When Seurat died, Signac moved to Saint-Tropez, (Cote d’Azur, France), a town where he remained until 1911. Throughout his life he traveled and sailed through different countries such as Italy and Turkey, also toured France. During these trips visited La Rochelle, Marseille, Venice, and Istanbul, among others. Those experiences served as inspiration for his paintings, in which he represented maritime scenes. Within those trips, he painted a large number of watercolors.

Throughout time, he ceased to strictly follow the rules of pointillism, widening the brushstrokes as seen in the paintings Samois, Departure of tuna vessels in Groix, La Seine au Pont-Royal, and Rivière de Vannes. From 1913, Signac traveled to Antibes, where he spent long stays, keeping his studio in Paris. During this period, he was president of the Société des Artistes Indépendants, a position he held from 1909 until his death on August 15, 1935, in Paris.

In the course of his career, Signac painted a large number of paintings and watercolors. In most of these, he applied pointillism, a technique developed by Seurat. Most of these paintings represented maritime scenes, although, he also painted still lives, decorative compositions, and everyday scenes. Among his most outstanding works are Opus 217. Against the Enamel of a Background Rhythmic with Beats and Angles, Tones, and Tints (1890), Woman by the Lamp (1890), The Papal Palace in Avignon (1900), Grand Canal ( 1905), The Port of Rotterdam (1907), Antibes, the towers (1911), Port of La Rochelle (1921) and Lézardrieux (1925).

In the last years of his career, he painted various watercolors in which he did not strictly follow the rules of pointillism; for this period he became friends with Belgian painters who subsequently formed a group of neo-impressionists.

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Paul Gauguin

Paul Gauguin Biography
Paul Gauguin / Public domain

Paul Gauguin Biography

Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (June 7, 1848 – May 8, 1903) was born in Paris, France. Painter. Considered one of the most prominent exponents of post-impressionism with Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Henri Matisse, Georges Pierre Seurat, Camille Pissarro, and Paul Signac, among others.

Gauguin began to be interested in art in the early 1870s, at which time he acquired various works of impressionist art and took classes, later he comes into contact with artists such as Camille Pisarro with whom he began working. His first works influenced by Impressionism were exhibited at the Impressionist Exhibition of 1879. By the end of that decade, he faced serious economic and family problems, which affected his reputation. During this period his work changed radically, an event that was influenced by his relationship with Vincent van Gogh and his trip to Martinique. His most famous paintings are: The Seine on the Jena Bridge, (1875), Rouen, blue roofs, (1884), Laundresses of Arles (1888), The Green Christ (1889), Manao Tupapau (1892) and where we come? About us? Where we go? (1897).

Early years

Son of Clovis Gauguin and Aline Chazal, his father was a French journalist and his mother was a native of Peru. After the coup d’etat of Napoleon III in 1851, the family moved to Peru, where he lived for four years. He was raised in a middle-class family. While growing up he was attracted to the sea, which led him to enroll in the merchant marine with only 17 years, later joined the Navy. At that time, he visited different countries in South America and Europe.

By the beginning of the 1870s, he returned to Paris, where he began working at a financial company, shortly afterward he married Mette-Sophie Gad, with whom he had five children. Thanks to his work he was able to live with his family comfortably. At that same time, he began to be interested in painting and Parisian art, which is why he took painting classes and bought various works by impressionist painters such as Camille Pissarro, Édouard Manet, Paul Cézanne and Claude Monet.

Artistic career

After taking classes and coming into contact with the Parisian artistic environment, he began painting his first works, in which the influence of impressionism is reflected. The first of these was the lake in the plain (1874). The following year he became friends with Camille Pissarro, an impressionist painter with whom he began working since then. During these years, Gauguin made various paintings such as The Seine on the Jena Bridge (1875), Autumn Landscape (1877), Mette Gauguin Sewing (1878), Garden Under the Snow (1879) and The Hortelanos de Vaugirard (1879). These consolidated the career of the young artist. Upon gaining recognition from other impressionist artists he was invited to the Impressionist Exhibition of 1879, in which works by Monet, Pissarro, Edgar Degas, and Mary Cassat were exhibited.

In the following years, he was part of the Impressionist exhibitions, which became the center of the debate of the movement; recognized painters such as Jean-Louis Forain, Berthe Morisot, Henri Rouart, Victor Vignon, Georges Seurat and Paul Signac participated in these.

In 1883, the Parisian stock market collapsed, so Gauguin decided to make his passion for art his profession. Dedicating himself completely to this artistic activity. The following year he moved with his family to Copenhagen, the city where his wife’s family lived. During his stay, he sought financial support from the family. However, his attempts failed, shortly after he abandoned his wife and children, an event that affected his reputation. In the following years, Gauguin was rejected by the society of the time.

Gauguin and post-impressionist painting

Towards the end of the 1880s, his paintings and ideas changed. He began to move away from impressionism, without completely denying it. His new style was within the framework of what became known as synthesism, a term used by post-impressionist painters to distinguish their work from impressionism. This turn that his work had was influenced by his relationship with the Dutch painter, Vincent Van Gogh, who at that time visited his brother in Paris. This short stay on the island of Martinique also influenced this change.

Between 1886 and 1888 he followed Van Gogh, impressed by his work he traveled to Arles with him in 1888, where he hoped to work together. However, the personalities of these collided leading to this project to fail. From this period, the works stand out: Four Bretons (1886), Still Life with a Profile of Laval (1886), Near the Sea II (1887), Conversation in the Tropics (1887) and Portrait of Madelaine Bernard (1888).

Conversation TropiquesAfter he failed in Arles he returned to Paris, where he began to deepen his interest in popular art influenced by his friend Émile Bernard. During this period, he developed with Bernard the style that distinguished them from the Impressionists, the synthesis. A style that was characterized by the delineation of the color zones, which contrasted strongly in the painting, likewise, it did not seek to represent impressions or imitate scenes. This style rejected the techniques and bases of Impressionism.

In the last years of his career, Gauguin traveled and spent a long time in the Marquesas and Tahiti Islands. While residing in these islands he painted scenes of daily life and scenes that alluded to the culture and beliefs of the inhabitants of the island, such as La Orana Maria (1891), On the beach (1981), Upaupa, The dance of fire (1891) The house of the hymns (1892), the canoe (1896), The idol (1897), Where do we come from? About us? Where we go? (1897) and invocation (1903). During these last years of his career, the painter’s health deteriorated, he died on May 8, 1903, in the Marquesas Islands.

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Henri Rousseau

Henri Rousseau Biography
Public domain

Henri Rousseau Biography

Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (May 21, 1844 – September 2, 1910) was born in Laval, France. Painter, considered one of the key figures of the naive artistic current, a style that was characterized by naivety and spontaneity exposed in his works. Rousseau became known in the Parisian artistic environment in the mid-1880s, at which time his work was exhibited in the Hall of Independents, where the works of great post-impressionist artists such as Georges Seurat, Paul Signac, Edgar Degas, Camille Pissarro, and Paul Gauguin, were exhibited, among others.

Due to his humble origin, he could not train academically as an artist. However, with discipline and effort, he learned in a self-taught way, managing to develop his talent without specialized training. Before devoting himself fully to painting, he worked as an employee of the arbitrary, a profession that was inspired by his nickname, The Customs. Among his most recognized works are The War (1894), The Sleeping Gypsy (1897) and The Snake Charmer (1907).

Early years

He was born in a humble family, attended his academic studies while doing small jobs. During his youth he enlisted in the army, being part of it for four years. In the 1870s, he was on the battlefield due to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, after the death of his father was sent home. In 1871 he settled with his wife, Clémence Boitard in Paris, a city where he began working as an employee of the arbitration, municipal tax office that is responsible for collecting taxes. While working he began to be interested in poetry, music, and art, passionate about them, but without being able to pay for his studies, he learned everything necessary in a self-taught way.

Artistic career

Since the end of the 1870s he began painting and drawing, subsequently came into contact with the Parisian artistic environment, drawing the attention of some post-impressionist artists. In 1886, his first known work, The Carnival of Animals, was exhibited, in which the influence of academic painting and its detailed representation is perceived, in this use intense colors and moderate shades. This application of colors is one of the characteristics of Rousseau’s works.

In the 1890s, he retired from his work to focus on his artistic production, by then his work had been ridiculed. However, he began to gain the attention of the public and the impressionist and post-impressionist artists after the publication of a series of works in which the naive style is reflected, of which it is one of the greatest exponents.

The first work of this series was the portrait titled, Myself: Portrait-Landscape (1890), followed by Tiger in a tropical storm (1891), a painting in which he used intense colors to represent the hard moment a tiger was going through when facing a tropical storm; a short time later he presented Centennial of Independence (1892), a work that illustrated the celebration of the anniversary of independence.

Two years later, he painted The War (1894), a painting that alluded to the horrors of war, in which you can see a field covered with bodies and a wild-looking floor; the rawness of the theme contrasted with the naive style of the painting. These works caught the attention of the impressionist Degas and the primitive post-impressionist Gauguin, among other artists of the same artistic environment. The following year he presented Boy on the Rocks (1895), followed by The Sleeping Gypsy (1897), one of his best-known works, in this, the painter illustrated a lady lying next to a lion in an unreal environment, which refers to the dream world, thematic that was frequently addressed in his works.

The Dream (1910)

In the early years of the twentieth century, Rousseau’s work was admired and widely recognized, among his most prominent admirers are Pablo Picasso and Guillaume Apollinaire, a writer who appreciated the poetic way in which he expressed himself in his paintings. In the mid-1900s, Rousseau began painting a series of jungle scenes, which attracted public attention for attention to detail and the use of bright colors, among these stand out hungry lion attacking an antelope (1905), The Merry Jesters (1906) The Snake Charmer (1907), The Equatorial Jungle (1909), Mandrill in the Jungle (1909) and The Dream (1910). In these, the painter referred to the lost natural paradise, represented as an exotic world. These works profoundly influenced the naive artistic current and other imaginative currents that subsequently emerged.

For this same period, he painted various portraits, urban scenes and scenes of everyday life such as weddings and sporting events, among these are: The girl with a doll (1905) and The Football Players (1908). His last work was The Dream (1910), a painting in which he illustrated the exotic dream of a young woman resting on a sofa; This work is connected with Snake Charmer and her works on jungle scenes.

In the last years of his life, his career was hampered by the rise of primitivism. After a career of highs and lows, Rousseau died on September 2, 1910.

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Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

Public domain

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Biography

Henri Marie Raymond of Toulouse-Lautrec (November 24, 1864 – September 9, 1901) was born in Albi, France. Painter, draftsman and poster artist, considered one of the most outstanding artists of the 18th century, in his works he frequently represented the Parisian nightlife.

Toulouse-Lautrec was interested in art from an early age, thanks to his family origin he was able to devote himself fully to cultivate his passion for drawing. Due to two accidents he suffered while practicing sports, his lower limbs were stunted, so he did not reach the appropriate height for someone his age. That situation did not affect his social life, nor his artistic career. In the 1880s he opened his workshop, in which he developed most of his artistic production, which was influenced by the work of artists such as Edgar Degas, Vincent van Gogh, and Paul Gauguin, as well as the Japanese prints ukiyo-e. His most recognized works are The stable of the Fernando circus (1888), Dance at the Moulin Rouge (1890), At the Opera Ball (1893) and In the hall of rue des Moulins (1894).

Early years

He was born into an aristocratic family, his parents were Alphonse de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa and Countess Adèle Tapié de Celeyran, first-degree relatives; due to their consanguinity, Henri suffered a disease that affected the proper development of his bones. In 1868, his parents divorced and the four-year-old boy was in the care of his mother. He lived with her in the French county of Albi until 1873, the year in which the family moved to Paris. A year later the disease began to manifest itself. However, the family did not let this affect the child’s life. Henri had a calm and happy childhood and adolescence, during these years he played sports and began to be interested in art. While practicing sports he suffered two accidents (1878 and 1879) which seriously affected his lower extremities, since then they grew little, which is why Henri measured 1.52 m.

The beginnings

Towards the end of the 1870s he began painting in the workshop of René Princeteau, an outstanding painter of equestrian and military subjects, he later studied painting the art studies of Léon Bonnat and Fernand Cormon. During this training period he met the post-impressionist painters Émile Bernard, Louis Anquetin and Vincent van Gogh, of the latter he made a portrait in which colors abound, he is currently in the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam. This contact with artists of the post-impressionist artistic movement profoundly influenced the works of Toulouse-Lautrec, an artistic one that, as time went by, began to be part of this school, following the expressionist line with Van Gogh.

Artistic career

In 1885 he opened his workshop in Montmartre, where he carried out most of his artistic productions, influenced by the Parisian artistic environment that at that time was leaving aside impressionism as such, to give way to schools that inspired by it rejected its rigor, such as the neo-impressionist school of Seurat and Signac or the synthesis of Gauguin. During this period his works were influenced by the style of Edgar Degas and the ukiyo-e, Japanese prints; of these works he appreciated characteristics such as the use of colors, the enhancement given to the focus of the painting and the way of capturing certain scenes.

In the course of his artistic career Toulouse-Lautrec, he had an active social life, which led him to move in the bohemian atmosphere of Montmartre. He was a regular customer in cafes, theaters and dance halls also frequented brothels and other entertainment establishments. These experiences were the inspiration of his work in which he shaped the bohemian atmosphere, especially drew singers, dancers and circus characters. Since the end of the 1880s, the development of his style can be seen in his works, as reflected in At the Cirque Fernando (1888), in which he represented the world of the circus and its dazzling shows.

At the Moulin Rouge: The Dance (1890)

At the Moulin Rouge: The Dance (1890)

In the 1890s he began to illustrate the atmosphere of the Moulin Rouge, emphasizing the dancers and dance scenes, by this time he drew Dance in the Moulin Rouge (1890), Moulin Rouge: La Goulue (1891), The English in the Moulin Rouge (1892), In the Moulin Rouge: two women dancing (1892) and Jane Avril. Garden of Paris (1893); it is worth mentioning that Jane Avril is considered the muse of the young artist. The following year he painted in the hall of rue des Moulins (1894), a work in which he represented the atmosphere of the brothel. In this decade he drew numerous advertising posters on cabarets and commercial products, through which he laid the foundations for poster design. Among the most outstanding works are Divan Japanese (1893), Photographer Sescau (1894), The Mademoiselle Eglantine Company (1896) and The Simpson Chain (1896).

Towards the end of the 1890s, the health of the young artist deteriorated due to alcohol consumption, which is why he was admitted to hospital in 1899, to carry out an ethyl detoxification treatment. During this period he experimented with the use of colors and artificial light. In these years he drew Madame Poupoule at Her Dressing Table (1898), The Bed (1898), At the circus, horse and monkey dressage (1899) and At the Circus The Animal Trainer (1899).

The latest creations Toulouse-Lautrec, reflected the crisis that was going through, becoming bleak as seen in At the Rat Mort (1899), Woman in a Chemise Standing by a Bed (1899), The Milliner (1900), An Examination at the Faculty of Medicine, Paris (1901) and In the Bois de Boulogne (1901). After the deterioration of his health, the young artist died on September 9, 1901, at the age of thirty-six. Currently, part of his work is preserved in the Toulouse-Lautrec Museum, located in Albi.

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Halsey Biography
Toglenn / CC BY-SA

Halsey Biography

Ashley Nicolette Frangipane (September 29, 1994) was born in New Jersey, United States. Singer and songwriter considered one of the most outstanding female artists of recent years. Frangipane is known by her stage name Halsey, a name that is an anagram of her first name (Ashley). This was released on the pop music scene in the early 2010s, when it became a trend for its covers and the parody of the song I Knew You Were Trouble by Taylor Swift, subsequently published the debut EP Room 93 (2014), of which the successes Ghost, Hurricane, and Trouble stood out.

In the following years, the artist established herself as a strong figure in the scene with themes such as Colors, New Americana, Castle, Now or Never, Bad at Love and Closer. The artist has excelled for her support of the LGBTQIA community and feminism, participating in various marches for gender equity and respect for human rights.


Daughter of Nicole and Chris Frangipane, she has Dante and Sevian as brothers. She was born in a humble family, from an early age she was interested in music and she was supported by her family. As she grew up she learned to play the viola, the violin, and the cello, then she started playing the acoustic guitar. Over time, she decided to continue seriously her passion for music specializing in fine arts at the university, however, the costs were too high, so she went to a community college in which she studied composition, area in which she was deeply interested, becoming the means of expressing her sorrows and joys.

At eighteen, while she was studying, she began to face serious economic problems, which is why she began to work presenting herself in different cities with varied artistic names, at this time she chose her artistic name, Halsey, since it was an anagram of her first name. In these years, she uploaded covers of songs on YouTube, with her name through which she was gaining popularity, later she created her account on SoundCloud, in which she uploaded her compositions, which were well received by the public.



After becoming known on YouTube and SoundCloud, she drew the attention of the Astralwerks label with which she signed a contract a short time later. Under this label she released on October 27th the debut EP Room 93 (2014), this included Is There Somewhere, Ghost, Hurricane, Empty Gold, and Trouble, also included four special videos. After the publication, the EP was gaining popularity becoming a trend, also, it positioned itself in the 159th position of the Billboard 200. Later, Halsey joined the tour of the band The Kooks as an opening act.

In 2015 the singer rose to fame becoming one of the most mentioned artists online, after appearing in the South by Southwest, an event about films, interactive media, and music, of which the singer was part. That same year she undertook her first musical tour called, The American Youth Tour, which took place between March and April, in which the band Rising Sons and singer Olivver The Kid participated as guests. For mid-year Halsey, she was chosen as the opening act of the Smoke & Mirrors Tour of Imagine Dragons, in her presentation she interpreted some EP songs and other unpublished songs such as Colors, Control, Castle, Haunting and Roman Holiday, which would be included in the singer’s next album.

Starting June, she published the single Hold Me Down through his YouTube channel, this was included in the album Badlands (2015), a disc of the conceptual type inspired by a dystopian society called The Badlands, in which its inhabitants are held captive. The artist mentioned that this setting was the reflection of her mental state since on several occasions she wanted to escape from reality and the frustration that was linked to her condition as a bipolar person, a disorder she has talked about in various interviews and which has inspired some of her songs. Badlands included successful songs such as New Americana, Colors, Control and Castle.

In 2016 she published the EP Complementary Colors (2016), which consisted of five remixes of Colors, followed by the release of Tokyo Narita. By the end of the year, she collaborated with the American DJ duo, The Chainsmokers in Closer, a song that quickly became a trend, positioning itself in the US music tops. After the success of the song, Closer Remixes came out with R3hab, Shaun Frank, among others.

In mid-2017 she released Hopeless fountain kingdom (2017), an album that consisted of seventeen songs among these varied collaborations such as Strangers with Lauren Jauregui, Hopeless with Cashmere Cat, Alone with Big Sean and Stefflon Don and Lie with Quavo; from this stand out the song, it is Now or Never, Eyes Closed, Bad at Love, Sorry and Alone. Shortly after being published the album was positioned on the Billboard 200. This was chosen as one of the 50 best albums of the year by Billboard and Rolling Stone.

The following year already as a consolidated artist Halsey participated in Women’s March, a march for women’s rights in which various celebrities and figures of feminism participated. During the march, the singer delivered the speech Story like mine, in which she talks about psychological abuse, harassment and other situations that marked her life, experiences that many women share. The speech video became a trend. That same year she launched the collaboration with Benny Blanco, Eastside and later published the single Without Me. In 2019, she released the remix of Without Me with Juice WRLD.

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