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Pope Francisco (Jorge Mario Bergoglio)

Pope Francisco Biography

Pope Francisco (Jorge Mario Bergoglio) Biography

Jorge Mario Bergoglio better known as Pope Francisco was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in the Porteño neighborhood on December 17, 1936. His parents: Mario Bergoglio (emigrant from Italy), he was a railway accountant and his mother Regina María Sívori, a housewife born in Buenos Aires, who was responsible for the education of their five children. Bergoglio was baptized on the Christmas night of the same year, at the Basilica of Mary Help of Christians and St. Charles of Buenos Aires, by the Salesian priest Enrique Pozzoli. On October 8, 1944, he made his first communion. He had a close relationship with her grandparents, especially with his paternal grandmother Rosa M. Vasallo, of whom Pope Francis says: “she has been the woman who has had the most influence in my life.”

Pope Francis grew up in a home accustomed to Italian and Catholic origins. He studied at the Salesian College, then entered the industrial secondary school (E.T.N. No.27) Hipólito Yrigoyen, where he graduated as a Chemical Technician.

He worked in the Hickethier – Bachmann laboratory, performing bromatological analyzes aimed at controlling the hygiene of food products.

In his youth due to a disease, he underwent a surgical operation where a fragment of his lung was removed, which according to the doctors did not have any significant impact on his health, only in the case of a decrease in the reserve of breathing if he was to suffer a respiratory infection.

In 1957, at the age of 21, he decided to become a religious, and entered the Seminary of Villa Devoto, in the novitiate of the “Society of Jesus.” After two years of novitiate, he finished his studies at the Jesuit seminary of Santiago de Chile, located in the retreat house San Alberto Hurtado, where he entered the course of Classical Sciences and deepened his studies of history, literature, Latin, and Greek.

Between 1964 and 1966, he was a professor of literature and psychology at the College of the Immaculate Conception of Santa Fe and at the Salvador School in Buenos Aires.

In 1966, he and several Jesuits of the Universidad del Salvador were spiritual directors of the young Catholic members who joined the Peronist youth group “Guardia de Hierro” (Organization with political activity on several fronts).

Four days before his 33 years of age, the eve of the third Sunday of Advent was ordained “Priest” on December 13, 1969, in Argentina by the Archbishop Emeritus of Cordoba, Monsignor Ramón José Castellano.

Between 1967 and 1970, he studied theology at the Colegio Máximo de San José in San Miguel. Between 1970 and 1971 he made the third probation of his novitiate in the Spanish city of Alcalá de Henares, (last necessary test to enter the Society of Jesus definitively.) In 1973, he issued his perpetual vows in the Society of Jesus. He returned to Argentina to continue his vocation of service, being named Provincial of the Jesuits on July 31, a position he held until 1979. At this time he had dialogues with priests in danger of kidnapping and with other religious who had been freed, they were victims of torture especially those linked to the Movement of Priests for the Third World.

In 1980 until 1986, he was rector of the Colegio Máximo de San Miguel and of the Faculties of Philosophy and Theology. He was also the first parish priest of the Parroquia del Patriarca San José located in the humble San José neighborhood of the San Carlos town of Buenos Aires.

Jorge Mario Bergoglio was always a simple man, sober, low profile, but of energetic preaching, brave defender of life from conception to natural death, lover of music, literature, and as a good Argentine soccer lover.

Pope Francis is the first to be: pontiff of America, Spanish speaker, Jesuit and having chosen the name of the saint of Assisi, great evangelizer of the Society of Jesus “San Francisco Javier.”

On May 20, 1992, he was consecrated titular Bishop of the Diocese of Oca, to practice as one of the auxiliary bishops of Buenos Aires.

In 1997, he was appointed Coadjutor Archbishop. When Cardinal Antonio Quarracino died, Jorge Mario succeeded him as Archbishop of Buenos Aires on February 28, 1998. This position had added the title of Primate of Argentina and the Grand Chancellor of the Catholic University of Argentina.

On February 21, 2001, during the consistory (Meeting of the College of Cardinals), at that time, Pope John Paul II made him “Cardinal,” assigning him the title of “St. Robert Bellarmine.” As Cardinal, Jorge Mario Bergoglio led a prudent life. He lived alone in a simple apartment on the second floor of the Parrish building, next to the Cathedral, was an efficient defender of the Argentines during the economic and social crisis in 2001. In Buenos Aires, he traveled by public transport (Metro, bus) like any other priest always in his cassock, he cooked his own food and often confessed in the Cathedral of Buenos Aires. In October of the same year, he was appointed deputy general rapporteur for the tenth ordinary general assembly of the Synod of Bishops. The congregation for the clergy, the pontifical council for the family, and a member of the Argentine Episcopal Conference, among others.

As Archbishop and Cardinal Jorge Mario was known for his humility and his commitment to social justice. He promoted the dialogue and the approach to the different social groups, whether or not they were Catholic. He also reinforced the pastoral work in the parishes, increasing the presence of priests in the marginal neighborhoods. For this reason he was known as the “Bishop of the Poor.” He is a fan and a simple active member of the San Lorenzo de Almagro Athletic Club.

When John Paul II died, the Conclave began on April 18, 2005, for the election of the new pope. There were 117 Cardinals under the age of 80 eligible to vote. Among them was Bergoglio who took the second place behind Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger who was elected Pope under the name of Benedict XVI, Pope until February 2013. Bergoglio, upon reaching 75 years of age presented his resignation as Archbishop and could retire once his successor was appointed, but Pope Benedict XVI did not accept it.

On March 13, 2013, in the fifth round of voting on the second day of the conclave, Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected Pope, successor of Benedict XVI, after his election with the majority of votes, the Cardinal chose the name of Francisco as his Pontifical name in honor of St. Francis of Assisi, an Italian saint who founded the Franciscan Order in the thirteenth century and was characterized by the delivery to the poor. In his first public appearance, Pope Francis raised a prayer for Pope Benedict and said he started a path asking all the faithful to pray for each other to achieve a great fraternity. He also said:

“I hope that this path of the church that we started today will be fruitful for evangelization.”

And he asked for a prayer in silence for him, so that God could help him in his work.

On March 14, 2013, one day after being elected, he celebrated his first Mass as pontiff in the Sistine Chapel. He did it alternating Latin and Italian, without the help of writings, called to proclaim the message of “Jesus Christ,” stressed the need for the church to move away from the mundane building on the “Gospel” and the cornerstone of Christ. Friday, March 15 (Second day of his pontificate), he received in audience all the Cardinals in the Clementine Hall of the Vatican Apostolic Palace, thanked them for the support received in the Papal Conclave and praised the work done by Benedict XVI (his predecessor) saying “I feel great gratitude and affection for my predecessor, who reinvigorated the church with his faith, his knowledge and his humility.” He also said:

“All of us are going to try to respond with faith to bring Jesus Christ to humanity and to bring humanity back to Christ, to the church.”

On Saturday the 16th, Pope Francis received the journalists in the classroom Paul VI, blessed them and thanked them for the work done during the days of the conclave by speaking to them in Spanish saying “Many of you do not belong to the Catholic Church and others are not believers, but respecting the conscience of each one, I give you my blessing knowing that Each one of you is a child of God. May God bless you!” On Sunday, March 17, Pope Francis presided over the Angelus prayer from the balcony of the Apostolic Palace before more than one hundred and fifty thousand people, telling them of the” Mercy of God.” On March 19, Pope Francis was the inaugural mass of the pontificate, attended by official delegations from 132 countries of the world and leaders of other religious denominations. Among the representatives of other Christian denominations that attended the ceremony was the Patriarch of Constantinople Bartholomew I, a surprising fact that did not occur from the Schism of the East, almost a thousand years ago.



  • Columen Fidei: “The light of faith” (July 5, 2013).
  • Laudato Si: “Praise you” (May 24, 2015).



May 12, 2013: Laura Montoya, María Lupita García Zabala and Antonio Primaldo and their 812 fellow martyrs of Otranto.

Additionally, on October 9 of the same year, he decreed the equivalent canonization of the Franciscan tertiary mystic Ángela de Foligno. Therefore, he is the Pope who has proclaimed the most saints in the history of the church, surpassing the record of John Paul II. On December 17, 2013, on his 76th birthday, he issued the equivalent canonization of Pedro Fabro, Saint Jesuit co-founder of the Society of Jesus and on April 3, 2014, Francisco canonized by decree José de Anchieta (Spanish Missionary and Jesuit poet who founded cities in Brazil). Marie Guyart (a French woman who became a widow and became an indigenous teacher in Canada when she became a widow). On April 27, 2014, he carried out the joint canonization of Pope John Paul II and Pope John XXIII. Among many others.



  • By showing his simplicity and humility, he has gone to meet Catholics of the world with messages of peace, he has sought to have bridges for reconciliation between countries and communities, opening new ways of Evangelization.
  • Rio de Janeiro ( World Youth Day from July 22 to 29, 2013).
  • Land of the Holy Land: Jordan, Israel and Palestine (May 24-26, 2014).
  • South Korea: Daejeon and Seoul (August 13-18, 2014).
  • Albania: Tirana (September 21, 2014).
  • Strasbourg: France (November 25, 2014).
  • Turkey: Ankara and Istanbul (November 28 to 30, 2014).
  • The Philippines and Sri Lanka (12 to 19) January 2015).
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina (June 6, 2015).
  • Ecuador, Bolivia and Paraguay (July 5 to 12, 2015).
  • Cuba and the United States (September 19 to September 28, 2015).



  • “I insist once again: God never gets tired of forgiving, it is us who get tired of going to His mercy.”
  • “I can say that the most beautiful and spontaneous joys I have seen in my life are the of very poor people who have little to cling to.”
  • “Jesus Christ can also break the boring schemes in which we intend to enclose him and surprise us with his constant divine creativity.”
  • “Hate, envy and pride dirty life.”
  • “How I would like a poor church and for the poor.”
  • ” I ask you a favor. Before the bishop blesses the people, I ask you to pray to the Lord to bless me.”
  • ” God understands us, he waits for us, he never tires of forgiving us. If we know how to return to Him with a repentant heart.”



  • In 2013 Time magazine considered him one of the hundred most influential people in the group of “Leaders.”
  • In 2013, he was chosen by the same magazine “Person of the year.”
  • In 2014, he figured among the candidates for the Nobel Prize in Peace.



  • Sovere Grand Master of the Supreme Order of Christ.
  • Soberano Grand Master of the Order Espuela de Oro.
  • Soberano Grand Master of the Order of Pio IX.
  • Soberano Grand Master of the Order of San Gregorio Magno.
  • Soberano Grand Master of the Order of San Silvestre.



  • High-ranking Grand Knight of the Order of the Condor of the Andes (the Plurinational State of Bolivia, 09/07/2015).
  • Order to Merit Luis Espinal Camps (Plurinational State of Bolivia, 09/07/2015).
  • Knight of the Order of the Smile (Republic of Poland, 26/04/2016). Charlemagne Prize 2016 (06/05/2016).


History of Administration

History of Administration
Photo by Benjamin Child on Unsplash

History of Administration

When inquiring into the history of the administration we must go back to the very needs of men to perform tasks in society. Although some historians try to trace the origin of the administration to the development of the first commercial activities on the part of the Sumerians and Egyptians, it should be noted that planning, organizing, and directing workgroup activities were already present from much more remote times, such as the case of the Paleolithic hunters.


The first vestiges of a stable social organization and therefore the first traces in the history of the administration date from the Paleolithic age, specifically in activities such as intensive hunting, which brings with it the collaboration of a social group, it is assumed formed by the “big family”; a sufficiently relevant and complex activity that required a direction and organization of resources. Since then, the hunter gradually evolved into a shepherd and a farmer, with the Neolithic revolution being a turning point in the origin and development of some concepts typical of the area of ​​administrative knowledge, since the transition from predator man to producer man implied a massive introduction of work as a daily activity, as well as the establishment of a structured social system.


Throughout time the farmer became a worker, first as a craftsman developing manual work, and then as a controller of machinery; since the industrial revolution and as productive activities intensified, in the same way, the difficulties between workers and employers increased, both due to incentives and the management of material resources, symptoms that gave way to what is known as the «scientific school of administration» Founded in 1895 by the contributions of Frederick Taylor, whose first objective was to face the problems of workshop management through scientific management, with contributions such as Taylor’s mental revolution, the development of the study of movements of the Gilbreth spouses, philosophy of direction of Henry Gantt, Emerson’s efficiency primes.

It was around these times that the history of administration was interwoven with the history of industrial engineering. As a result of the scientific school, the first five general principles of administration were considered:

  • Organized knowledge: Substitution of arbitrary rules for science. Work synergy: Harmony within the workgroups.
  • Achieve cooperation between human beings.
  • Work in search of maximum and efficient production.
  • Comprehensive development of workers


Already in the 20th century, what is known as the tertiary sector, also called office work, rapidly developed, which led to a change of approach from the hitherto developed administrative theory. In 1916, Henri Fayol divided business and industrial operations into six groups: technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting, and administration. This division is considered the starting point of classical management school.

For Fayol, the administrative function should only be aimed at the social body, while the other functions affect raw materials and machinery, the administrative function only works on the company’s personnel. Thus then the 14 principles of the classical management school were considered:

  • Division of labor.
  • Authority and responsibility.
  • Discipline.
  • Unity of command.
  • Unity of direction.
  • Subordination of individual interests to general ones.
  • Staff remuneration.
  • Centralization.
  • Scalar chain.
  • Order.
  • Equity.
  • Staff stability.
  • Initiative.
  • Team spirit.

In 1930, the following contributions had influenced the development and consolidation of the Administration:

  1. Methods Engineering – H.B. Maynard
  2. Cause-effect diagram – Kaoru Ishikawa
  3. Hawthorne Effect – George Elton Mayo
  4. Quality “statistical process control” – William Deming
  5. Toyota Production System – Taichi Ohno
  6. Total Quality Management (TQM) – Armand Feigenbaum
  7. Design of experiments – Genichi Taguchi
  8. Program Review and Evaluation Technique (PERT)
  9. Affinity Diagram – Jiro Kawakita
  10. Statistical Engineering – Dorian Shainin
  11. Quality Circles – Joseph Moses Juran
  12. Marketing Administration – Philip Kotler
  13. Modern Administration – Peter Drucker
  14. Total Productive Maintenance System – Seiichi Nakajima
  15. Socio-technical systems – Russell Ackoff
  16. Competitive Strategy – Michael Porter
  17. Model of Kano – Noriaki Kano
  18. Theory of Constraints – Eliyahu M. Goldratt
  19. Kaizen Method – Masaaki Imai
  20. Six Sigma – Mikel Harry
  21. Balanced Scorecard – Robert S. Kaplan
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History of gymnastics

History of gymnastics
Martin Rulsch, Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

History of gymnastics

It is a competitive sport that runs several modalities. Most of the modalities demand the athlete to be balanced, strong, flexible, agile, resistant and composed. The International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) is the organization in charge of regulating competitive disciplines. One of the countries that practices gymnastics the most is Spain, according to the 2010 CSD Sports Habits Survey. Specifically, the most popular is rhythmic gymnastics. This sport was practiced in Rome, for the first time. Gymnastics also contained several modalities, such as walking, horse riding, and other gymnastic exercises. On some occasions, the loser in the competition was thrown into the Tiber.


Gymnastics also expanded in Greece, but more inclined to exercises in circuses, although later it was transformed into gladiatorial fights.


The FIG has accepted six gymnastic modalities: artistic, rhythmic, trampoline, aerobic, acrobatic, and gymnastics for all. The first two are the most distinguished because they are part of the Summer Olympics. While, trampoline gymnastics has been part of the Olympic Games since 2000, a competition that took place in Sydney.

Disciplines within gymnastics

Artistic gymnastics: The gymnast performs a choreographic composition, in which he executes body movements at different speeds. This modality contains several modalities according to the male and female categories. Women can make use of several elements within the geographical composition: uneven bars, balance beam, foal jump, and ground, while in the men’s category they are rings, pommel horse, parallel bars, high bar, colt jump, and floor.


Rhythmic gymnastics: This modality combines elements of ballet, gymnastics, dance, and elements such as rope, hoop, ball, mallets, and ribbon can also be implemented. This category has a level of competitions and another of exhibitions, music, and rhythm are very important when executing movements. Rhythmic gymnastics can be performed individually and in groups. The score is over a maximum of 20 points.


Trampoline gymnastics: In this discipline, a series of exercises are developed in various elastic devices, here acrobatics is the protagonist. Within this discipline, there are three specialties: tumbling, double mini-trampoline, and trampoline, the latter being part of the Olympic Games, since 2000.


Aerobic gymnastics: It is known as sports aerobics, a routine of between 100 and 110 seconds is executed with high-intensity movements in addition to a series of elements of difficulty. The gymnast must develop continuous movements, where he tests flexibility, strength, and perfect execution in the elements.


Acrobatic gymnastics: It takes place in groups: male couple, female couple, mixed couple, female trio, and male quartet. Collective gymnastic demonstrations are held, jumps, figures, and human pyramids are performed.


Gymnastics for all: Gymnastics for everyone has some peculiarities; It is the only non-competitive gymnastics discipline endorsed by FIG. It can be performed by people of all ages and genders in groups from 6 to 150 gymnasts who perform choreography in a synchronized way. It is divided into three categories: white, blue, and red groups. The first is the basic category, the blue group is intermediate, and the red group the advanced. It is characteristic of general gymnastics to use uniform gymnastic elements and accessories to characterize a theme. This discipline may include dynamic activities and exercises from artistic, rhythmic, aerobic, acrobatic, trampoline, and dance gymnastics.


Best Gymnasts in the World

  • Yuri Chechi
  • Boris Shakhlin
  • Li Xiaoshuang
  • Maxi Gnauck
  • Fabian Hambüchen
  • Maria Guigova
  • Ludmila Turischeva
  • Dimitry Bilozerchev
  • Tamara Yerofeva
  • Oksana Chusovitina
  • Lilia Podkopayeva
  • Kohei Uchimura
  • Ekaterina Szabo
  • Daria Kondakova
  • Maria Petrova
  • Gervasio Defer
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History of the Coronavirus
Imagen de Pete Linforth en Pixabay

History of the Coronavirus

Coronaviruses are a group of common viruses that can affect the respiratory system, causing anything from a mild cold to pneumonia. It is commonly found in animals, but it can affect or be transmitted to humans. Among the best-known strains of the virus is the one that caused SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) in 2003 and the Mers-Cov (Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus Syndrome) outbreak in 2012. A new outbreak recently emerged, 2019-nCoV, causing the pneumonia epidemic in Wuhan (China). To date, there are more than 30 species of the virus.

History of the virus

The first description of the virus emerged in the 60s, after being found in the nasal cavities of a patient. It was then given the name Coronavirus because of its corona-like appearance when viewed through a microscope. Although the strain was initially discussed in humans, it was found to be more common in animals and its effects were not serious. However, over the years the virus has mutated, causing outbreaks such as SARS and MERS.

What Causes Coronavirus?

The virus affects animals and humans, causing everything from the flu or a mild respiratory infection to more serious cases such as pneumonia or bronchitis. The severity and symptoms of the virus vary by type, although in most cases the disease is accompanied by symptoms such as fever, cough, headache, shortness of breath, and general malaise.

How is the coronavirus transmitted?

In general, the virus in humans is transmitted from person to person by close contact with someone infected. It is likely to be spread through coughing and sneezing. In cases where the virus has its origin in an animal, it can be transmitted by close contact with the specimen, whether the animal is ingested, touched, or causes an injury to the body (scratch, etc.).


Outbreaks: SARS and MERS

The first major outbreak caused by the coronavirus took place in Beijing in 2002, when a strain of the virus known as SARS-Cov caused the proliferation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, a disease that, as its name indicates, affects the respiratory system and in some cases can lead to death. In this case, the center of propagation was a food market in Canton and the origin was a bat.

Initially, the country underestimated the disease, so the virus spread uncontrollably, affecting the medical personnel who received the infected and everyone who had contact with them. Once the medical alert was declared, the virus was controlled, however, by then it had already spread to other countries in Asia, causing the death of more than 800 people. Thousands were infected. At the time, China’s response to the emergency was criticized.

In 2012, a new type of coronavirus was discovered, MERS-CoV (also known as MERS), which was transmitted from animals, in this case, dromedary, to humans, causing serious damage to the respiratory system. The first cases were reported in Saudi Arabia and Qatar, and although human-to-human contagion was low, the WHO issued an alert shortly after. However, the virus spread, both in the Middle East and in Europe, as many travelers (without symptoms) arrived home infected.

As of today, several cases of the virus can be found, in most of these, the infected person was for a short time in the Middle East. Cases have been confirmed in the United States, France, the Philippines, Turkey, and South Korea, among others.

New outbreak: COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)

At the end of 2019, a new outbreak of the virus emerged in China, today called 2019nCov, COVID-19, or Wuhan Coronavirus. The epicenter was a market for live animals and although its origin is not certain, it is believed to come from the pangolins. The first reported cases were of people who were in the market, relatives, medical personnel, and visitors who were in the area. The virus appears to be transmitted by close contact. After the report of the first cases and the taking of measures by the Chinese government, the inhabitants of Wuhan were isolated, while in other countries measures were extreme pending a statement from the WHO.

Although initially, the WHO was cautious, in light of the new cases and the rapid spread of the disease, on January 30th the WHO declared an international emergency. By then, the virus had already reached Thailand, Japan, South Korea, the United Kingdom, the United States, Singapore, France, and Germany, among other countries. In March, the first cases appear in Latin America and Africa. Among the countries most affected by the virus are: Italy, the United States, Spain, the United States, and South Korea.

Currently, many countries have taken precautions such as isolation, border closures, cancellation of classes, public events, and the shutdown of transportation systems. Also, due to the spread of the virus, many supplies have been depleted. It should be noted that the virus is especially dangerous for the elderly and children. These are the most affected by the virus, as are people who suffer from other diseases at the time of contracting the virus.


How to avoid contagion?

As has been mentioned in the media, the best way to avoid contagion is to wash your hands regularly. Places where many people gather and hospitals should also be avoided if it is not an emergency. In case of symptoms or deterioration, attention should be requested through the means provided by each country. Isolation in this case could prevent contagion from others. Since there is still no treatment or cure for the disease, the patient’s recovery depends on the care taken in the days after the infection.

By November 2020, the first vaccine candidates appeared. By February 2021, around 10 vaccines had been licensed for public use.

Symptoms and differences with the Flu

The person infected with the virus will have a dry cough, fever, sore throat, headache, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Unlike the flu, the virus is not accompanied by sneezing, nasal congestion, or diarrhea.


Chronology of COVID-19

December 31st: China communicates about the outbreak to the WHO.

January 1st: The animal market, the epicenter of the virus, is closed. January 9th: WHO announces to the world about the new type of coronavirus.

January 11th: First death.

January 13th: The virus reaches Thailand (first case outside China)

January 16th: First case in Japan.

January 21st: First case in the United States.

January 24: First case in Europe.

January 30th: An international health emergency is declared.

February 13th: The number of infected rises to 46,997 worldwide.

March 11th, 2020: WHO declares the new outbreak a pandemic.

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Chernobyl Disaster

Chernobyl Disaster
Taken from

Chernobyl Disaster

Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986) was a nuclear catastrophe that took place in Chernobyl, Ukraine. It is considered one of the most regrettable events in history. On Saturday, April 26, 1986, a test was carried out to increase the safety of nuclear reactor No. 4 installed at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

The intention of the test carried out by the technicians was to find out how long the steam turbine could generate electrical power after the loss of electrical power supply. The conditions under which the test would be carried out had been previously agreed upon: A special team of electrical engineers was present to test the new voltage regulation system. At dawn, the programmed reduction of power began, reaching 50% of its capacity. A problem broke out: a regional power plant was taken offline, and the power grid controller in Kyiv ordered a halt to Chernobyl’s reduction in power production as it had to meet the peak demand in the afternoon.

The Chernobyl director followed orders and postponed the test. However, some tests were carried out that did not affect the power of the reactor. The emergency core cooling system, intended to provide water to the plant in the event of a loss of coolant, was disabled.

At 11 pm, the controller of the Kyiv grid allowed the power reduction to resume. The test, as they had planned, had to end in the daytime and at night it was only intended to control the remaining heat. Alexandr Akimov was the head of the night shift and Leonid Toptunov was in charge of the operational regime of the reactor. They witnessed a power reduction, due to the natural production of xenon-135: a very absorbent gas of neutrons. This process is known as “xenon poisoning.” Toptunov mistakenly inserted the control rods too fast, the power was over 500 MW. As a result, the power dropped to 30 MW, the control room staff decided to increase the power by deactivating the automatic system that moved the control rods and manually raising them to the stop. Although the power stabilized at 160-200 MW, xenon poisoning prevented the increase in power and, to counter this, more control rods had to be removed.


Low power operation, the presence of xenon-135, core temperature, coolant flow, and instability in the neutron flow, were the factors that triggered the alarms. The control room received multiple emergency signals related to the levels of the water and steam separators. Between 00:35 and 00:45, the alarms on the thermohydraulic parameters were ignored by the technicians, supposedly to maintain the power level. When the 200 MW power level was finally achieved, preparation for the experiment was resumed. At 01:05 additional water pumps were activated, increasing the water flow. The increase in the coolant flow rate caused an increase in the coolant temperature at the inlet of the reactor core.


Minutes later the limit was exceeded. Simultaneously, the additional water flow lowered the overall core temperature and reduced the existing steam voids in the core and steam separators. The operators decided to shut down two of the circulating pumps to reduce the feedwater flow rate to increase steam pressure and to remove other control rods to maintain power. In short, the automatic system that could do the same had been disabled to maintain the power level. These actions constituted serious violations of the Nuclear Safety Regulations of the Soviet Union.


For most of the experiment, the automatic control system successfully countered this positive feedback. However, the system only had 12-bar control. With the emergency systems disconnected, the reactor experienced such a rapid surge in power that the operators failed to detect it in time. At 01:23, the start of a SCRAM (emergency shutdown) of the reactor was recorded, which would trigger the explosion.


The SCRAM was started by pressing the AZ-5 button. Now the reason why the AZ-5 button was pressed is not known. There is an opinion that the SCRAM may have been ordered in response to the sudden and unexpected increase in power, although there is no documented data to prove it. Some have suggested that the button was never pressed, but that the signal was produced automatically by the emergency protection system (SPE), however, the SKALA computer registered a manual signal. This is a question that still does not have a clear explanation, just assumptions.


It only took three seconds for the power level to rise above 530 MW. According to some estimates, the reactor’s power increased to around 30,000 MW, ten times normal production. There was an explosion produced by the formation of a hydrogen cloud within the core, which blew the 2000t lid of the reactor, stoking a fire in the plant and a gigantic emission of fission products into the atmosphere. About 25% of the red-hot graphite and other overheated material was expelled from the fuel channels.


In short, the high temperature of the core created an airflow through it, and the hot air ignited the graphite. Minutes later, the disaster was dealt with. The flames affected several floors of reactor 4 and came dangerously close to the building where reactor 3 was located. The authorities managed to stop the threat of explosion. The spectators witnessed a true catastrophe: the fuel and other metals had turned into an incandescent liquid mass. The temperature reached 2500 ° C, and the radioactive smoke was driven off a chimney at a considerable height. On the other hand, an astronomical level of 2080 roentgen was recorded. It would take a human being fifteen minutes to die after breathing such content.


The inhabitants of the city of Prípiat were evacuated. This first evacuation began massively 36 hours after the accident and took three and a half hours. The Chernobyl evacuation took place until May 2nd. By then, there were already approximately 1000 affected by acute injuries produced by radiation. Several Red Army helicopters dropped a mixture of materials (sand, clay, lead, dolomite, and boron) on the core to avoid any emission.


By the end of the emergency missions on May 13, 1,800 flights had been used and 5,000 tons of materials were thrown into the nucleus. Later, it would be verified that its effect was opposite because it contributed to the release of radionuclides. The radiation spread to most of Europe, these areas had a high rate of radioactivity for several days.

Image by sergiiasvn from Pixabay

For safety reasons, European countries instituted measures to limit the effect on human health of the pollution of fields and forests. International Humanitarian Aid Several countries collaborated, but Cuba has maintained since 1990 a medical program for the victims of this nuclear accident. Almost 24,000 patients, from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Moldova, and Armenia, have been treated at the Tarará Pediatric Hospital in Havana. Most of the patients are Ukrainian children affected by the disaster.

Around 67% of the children come from orphanages and schools for children without filial protection. They are evaluated and receive all kinds of treatments, including bone marrow transplants for those with leukemia. The Ukrainian Ministry of Health pays for the children’s travel to Cuba and all the rest of the funding for the program is covered by the Cuban government. On the other hand, the Galician NGO Asociación Ledicia Cativa temporarily shelters minors affected by Chernobyl radiation.

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Football history

Football or Soccer history
Imagen de Keith Johnston en Pixabay

Football or Soccer history

Although we want to go back to the History of Soccer, we must bear in mind that its roots and rules were not typical of the sport we know today.

Being Xeng-T emperor, in the 5th century, he forced the soldiers to play a ball game known as Tsú-Shú; meaning Tsú: kick and Shú: ball.

In the 2nd century b.C. in China, a game was held that consisted of disputing the ball vigorously with the rivals, and then, with the use of the feet and hands, passing the ball over a cord held by two posts, which today we know as “goal.”

In these times it is when the raw leather is wrapped in several roots; giving birth to the leather ball. Its inventor was FU-HI. It was used in the Chinese dynasty then, as training in the military fields. Even when a soldier violated the code, he was forced to dominate the ball without dropping it, if so, his punishment was dropped.

A century later, in Egypt, the ball game is performed as a fertility ritual. This game is adopted by its neighboring towns India and Persia, obtaining the ball as the object of the game.

 We can also find in America how the Aztecs practiced for years the game called Tlachitli, which was a mix between tennis, football and basketball. In the game the use of the hands was prohibited and the losing team captain was sacrificed as part of the game.

In 1855 Charles Goodyear built and patented the first soccer ball which consisted of a rudimentary vulcanized rubber ball.

However, if we want to talk about the History of Soccer per se, we should talk about how the Football Association was founded in England in 1863, thus being the first governing body of that sport. Stipulating from there the rules and style of play of what is today the most famous sport in the world.

In the year of 1900, Soccer is included in the Olympic Games and recognized as such. Later in 1902 Argentina and Uruguay meet in the first International match outside the British Isles.

In 1904, FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) was founded in Paris, France. Who from that moment was dedicated to regulate and organize the meetings worldwide.

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