Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986) was a nuclear catastrophe that took place in Chernobyl, Ukraine. It is considered one of the most regrettable events in history. On Saturday, April 26, 1986, a test was carried out to increase the safety of nuclear reactor No. 4 installed at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.
The intention of the test carried out by the technicians was to find out how long the steam turbine could generate electrical power after the loss of electrical power supply. The conditions under which the test would be carried out had been previously agreed upon: A special team of electrical engineers was present to test the new voltage regulation system. At dawn, the programmed reduction of power began, reaching 50% of its capacity. A problem broke out: a regional power plant was taken offline, and the power grid controller in Kyiv ordered a halt to Chernobyl’s reduction in power production as it had to meet the peak demand in the afternoon.
The Chernobyl director followed orders and postponed the test. However, some tests were carried out that did not affect the power of the reactor. The emergency core cooling system, intended to provide water to the plant in the event of a loss of coolant, was disabled.
At 11 pm, the controller of the Kyiv grid allowed the power reduction to resume. The test, as they had planned, had to end in the daytime and at night it was only intended to control the remaining heat. Alexandr Akimov was the head of the night shift and Leonid Toptunov was in charge of the operational regime of the reactor. They witnessed a power reduction, due to the natural production of xenon-135: a very absorbent gas of neutrons. This process is known as “xenon poisoning.” Toptunov mistakenly inserted the control rods too fast, the power was over 500 MW. As a result, the power dropped to 30 MW, the control room staff decided to increase the power by deactivating the automatic system that moved the control rods and manually raising them to the stop. Although the power stabilized at 160-200 MW, xenon poisoning prevented the increase in power and, to counter this, more control rods had to be removed.
Low power operation, the presence of xenon-135, core temperature, coolant flow, and instability in the neutron flow, were the factors that triggered the alarms. The control room received multiple emergency signals related to the levels of the water and steam separators. Between 00:35 and 00:45, the alarms on the thermohydraulic parameters were ignored by the technicians, supposedly to maintain the power level. When the 200 MW power level was finally achieved, preparation for the experiment was resumed. At 01:05 additional water pumps were activated, increasing the water flow. The increase in the coolant flow rate caused an increase in the coolant temperature at the inlet of the reactor core.
Minutes later the limit was exceeded. Simultaneously, the additional water flow lowered the overall core temperature and reduced the existing steam voids in the core and steam separators. The operators decided to shut down two of the circulating pumps to reduce the feedwater flow rate to increase steam pressure and to remove other control rods to maintain power. In short, the automatic system that could do the same had been disabled to maintain the power level. These actions constituted serious violations of the Nuclear Safety Regulations of the Soviet Union.
For most of the experiment, the automatic control system successfully countered this positive feedback. However, the system only had 12-bar control. With the emergency systems disconnected, the reactor experienced such a rapid surge in power that the operators failed to detect it in time. At 01:23, the start of a SCRAM (emergency shutdown) of the reactor was recorded, which would trigger the explosion.
The SCRAM was started by pressing the AZ-5 button. Now the reason why the AZ-5 button was pressed is not known. There is an opinion that the SCRAM may have been ordered in response to the sudden and unexpected increase in power, although there is no documented data to prove it. Some have suggested that the button was never pressed, but that the signal was produced automatically by the emergency protection system (SPE), however, the SKALA computer registered a manual signal. This is a question that still does not have a clear explanation, just assumptions.
It only took three seconds for the power level to rise above 530 MW. According to some estimates, the reactor’s power increased to around 30,000 MW, ten times normal production. There was an explosion produced by the formation of a hydrogen cloud within the core, which blew the 2000t lid of the reactor, stoking a fire in the plant and a gigantic emission of fission products into the atmosphere. About 25% of the red-hot graphite and other overheated material was expelled from the fuel channels.
In short, the high temperature of the core created an airflow through it, and the hot air ignited the graphite. Minutes later, the disaster was dealt with. The flames affected several floors of reactor 4 and came dangerously close to the building where reactor 3 was located. The authorities managed to stop the threat of explosion. The spectators witnessed a true catastrophe: the fuel and other metals had turned into an incandescent liquid mass. The temperature reached 2500 ° C, and the radioactive smoke was driven off a chimney at a considerable height. On the other hand, an astronomical level of 2080 roentgen was recorded. It would take a human being fifteen minutes to die after breathing such content.
The inhabitants of the city of Prípiat were evacuated. This first evacuation began massively 36 hours after the accident and took three and a half hours. The Chernobyl evacuation took place until May 2nd. By then, there were already approximately 1000 affected by acute injuries produced by radiation. Several Red Army helicopters dropped a mixture of materials (sand, clay, lead, dolomite, and boron) on the core to avoid any emission.
By the end of the emergency missions on May 13, 1,800 flights had been used and 5,000 tons of materials were thrown into the nucleus. Later, it would be verified that its effect was opposite because it contributed to the release of radionuclides. The radiation spread to most of Europe, these areas had a high rate of radioactivity for several days.
For safety reasons, European countries instituted measures to limit the effect on human health of the pollution of fields and forests. International Humanitarian Aid Several countries collaborated, but Cuba has maintained since 1990 a medical program for the victims of this nuclear accident. Almost 24,000 patients, from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Moldova, and Armenia, have been treated at the Tarará Pediatric Hospital in Havana. Most of the patients are Ukrainian children affected by the disaster.
Around 67% of the children come from orphanages and schools for children without filial protection. They are evaluated and receive all kinds of treatments, including bone marrow transplants for those with leukemia. The Ukrainian Ministry of Health pays for the children’s travel to Cuba and all the rest of the funding for the program is covered by the Cuban government. On the other hand, the Galician NGO Asociación Ledicia Cativa temporarily shelters minors affected by Chernobyl radiation.
History of Administration
History of Administration
When inquiring into the history of the administration we must go back to the very needs of men to perform tasks in society. Although some historians try to trace the origin of the administration to the development of the first commercial activities on the part of the Sumerians and Egyptians, it should be noted that planning, organizing, and directing workgroup activities were already present from much more remote times, such as the case of the Paleolithic hunters.
The first vestiges of a stable social organization and therefore the first traces in the history of the administration date from the Paleolithic age, specifically in activities such as intensive hunting, which brings with it the collaboration of a social group, it is assumed formed by the “big family”; a sufficiently relevant and complex activity that required a direction and organization of resources. Since then, the hunter gradually evolved into a shepherd and a farmer, with the Neolithic revolution being a turning point in the origin and development of some concepts typical of the area of administrative knowledge, since the transition from predator man to producer man implied a massive introduction of work as a daily activity, as well as the establishment of a structured social system.
Throughout time the farmer became a worker, first as a craftsman developing manual work, and then as a controller of machinery; since the industrial revolution and as productive activities intensified, in the same way, the difficulties between workers and employers increased, both due to incentives and the management of material resources, symptoms that gave way to what is known as the «scientific school of administration» Founded in 1895 by the contributions of Frederick Taylor, whose first objective was to face the problems of workshop management through scientific management, with contributions such as Taylor’s mental revolution, the development of the study of movements of the Gilbreth spouses, philosophy of direction of Henry Gantt, Emerson’s efficiency primes.
It was around these times that the history of administration was interwoven with the history of industrial engineering. As a result of the scientific school, the first five general principles of administration were considered:
- Organized knowledge: Substitution of arbitrary rules for science. Work synergy: Harmony within the workgroups.
- Achieve cooperation between human beings.
- Work in search of maximum and efficient production.
- Comprehensive development of workers
Already in the 20th century, what is known as the tertiary sector, also called office work, rapidly developed, which led to a change of approach from the hitherto developed administrative theory. In 1916, Henri Fayol divided business and industrial operations into six groups: technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting, and administration. This division is considered the starting point of classical management school.
For Fayol, the administrative function should only be aimed at the social body, while the other functions affect raw materials and machinery, the administrative function only works on the company’s personnel. Thus then the 14 principles of the classical management school were considered:
- Division of labor.
- Authority and responsibility.
- Unity of command.
- Unity of direction.
- Subordination of individual interests to general ones.
- Staff remuneration.
- Scalar chain.
- Staff stability.
- Team spirit.
In 1930, the following contributions had influenced the development and consolidation of the Administration:
- Methods Engineering – H.B. Maynard
- Cause-effect diagram – Kaoru Ishikawa
- Hawthorne Effect – George Elton Mayo
- Quality “statistical process control” – William Deming
- Toyota Production System – Taichi Ohno
- Total Quality Management (TQM) – Armand Feigenbaum
- Design of experiments – Genichi Taguchi
- Program Review and Evaluation Technique (PERT)
- Affinity Diagram – Jiro Kawakita
- Statistical Engineering – Dorian Shainin
- Quality Circles – Joseph Moses Juran
- Marketing Administration – Philip Kotler
- Modern Administration – Peter Drucker
- Total Productive Maintenance System – Seiichi Nakajima
- Socio-technical systems – Russell Ackoff
- Competitive Strategy – Michael Porter
- Model of Kano – Noriaki Kano
- Theory of Constraints – Eliyahu M. Goldratt
- Kaizen Method – Masaaki Imai
- Six Sigma – Mikel Harry
- Balanced Scorecard – Robert S. Kaplan
History of gymnastics
History of gymnastics
It is a competitive sport that runs several modalities. Most of the modalities demand the athlete to be balanced, strong, flexible, agile, resistant and composed. The International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) is the organization in charge of regulating competitive disciplines. One of the countries that practices gymnastics the most is Spain, according to the 2010 CSD Sports Habits Survey. Specifically, the most popular is rhythmic gymnastics. This sport was practiced in Rome, for the first time. Gymnastics also contained several modalities, such as walking, horse riding, and other gymnastic exercises. On some occasions, the loser in the competition was thrown into the Tiber.
Gymnastics also expanded in Greece, but more inclined to exercises in circuses, although later it was transformed into gladiatorial fights.
The FIG has accepted six gymnastic modalities: artistic, rhythmic, trampoline, aerobic, acrobatic, and gymnastics for all. The first two are the most distinguished because they are part of the Summer Olympics. While, trampoline gymnastics has been part of the Olympic Games since 2000, a competition that took place in Sydney.
Disciplines within gymnastics
Artistic gymnastics: The gymnast performs a choreographic composition, in which he executes body movements at different speeds. This modality contains several modalities according to the male and female categories. Women can make use of several elements within the geographical composition: uneven bars, balance beam, foal jump, and ground, while in the men’s category they are rings, pommel horse, parallel bars, high bar, colt jump, and floor.
Rhythmic gymnastics: This modality combines elements of ballet, gymnastics, dance, and elements such as rope, hoop, ball, mallets, and ribbon can also be implemented. This category has a level of competitions and another of exhibitions, music, and rhythm are very important when executing movements. Rhythmic gymnastics can be performed individually and in groups. The score is over a maximum of 20 points.
Trampoline gymnastics: In this discipline, a series of exercises are developed in various elastic devices, here acrobatics is the protagonist. Within this discipline, there are three specialties: tumbling, double mini-trampoline, and trampoline, the latter being part of the Olympic Games, since 2000.
Aerobic gymnastics: It is known as sports aerobics, a routine of between 100 and 110 seconds is executed with high-intensity movements in addition to a series of elements of difficulty. The gymnast must develop continuous movements, where he tests flexibility, strength, and perfect execution in the elements.
Acrobatic gymnastics: It takes place in groups: male couple, female couple, mixed couple, female trio, and male quartet. Collective gymnastic demonstrations are held, jumps, figures, and human pyramids are performed.
Gymnastics for all: Gymnastics for everyone has some peculiarities; It is the only non-competitive gymnastics discipline endorsed by FIG. It can be performed by people of all ages and genders in groups from 6 to 150 gymnasts who perform choreography in a synchronized way. It is divided into three categories: white, blue, and red groups. The first is the basic category, the blue group is intermediate, and the red group the advanced. It is characteristic of general gymnastics to use uniform gymnastic elements and accessories to characterize a theme. This discipline may include dynamic activities and exercises from artistic, rhythmic, aerobic, acrobatic, trampoline, and dance gymnastics.
Best Gymnasts in the World
- Yuri Chechi
- Boris Shakhlin
- Li Xiaoshuang
- Maxi Gnauck
- Fabian Hambüchen
- Maria Guigova
- Ludmila Turischeva
- Dimitry Bilozerchev
- Tamara Yerofeva
- Oksana Chusovitina
- Lilia Podkopayeva
- Kohei Uchimura
- Ekaterina Szabo
- Daria Kondakova
- Maria Petrova
- Gervasio Defer
History of the Coronavirus
Coronaviruses are a group of common viruses that can affect the respiratory system, causing anything from a mild cold to pneumonia. It is commonly found in animals, but it can affect or be transmitted to humans. Among the best-known strains of the virus is the one that caused SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) in 2003 and the Mers-Cov (Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus Syndrome) outbreak in 2012. A new outbreak recently emerged, 2019-nCoV, causing the pneumonia epidemic in Wuhan (China). To date, there are more than 30 species of the virus.
History of the virus
The first description of the virus emerged in the 60s, after being found in the nasal cavities of a patient. It was then given the name Coronavirus because of its corona-like appearance when viewed through a microscope. Although the strain was initially discussed in humans, it was found to be more common in animals and its effects were not serious. However, over the years the virus has mutated, causing outbreaks such as SARS and MERS.
What Causes Coronavirus?
The virus affects animals and humans, causing everything from the flu or a mild respiratory infection to more serious cases such as pneumonia or bronchitis. The severity and symptoms of the virus vary by type, although in most cases the disease is accompanied by symptoms such as fever, cough, headache, shortness of breath, and general malaise.
How is the coronavirus transmitted?
In general, the virus in humans is transmitted from person to person by close contact with someone infected. It is likely to be spread through coughing and sneezing. In cases where the virus has its origin in an animal, it can be transmitted by close contact with the specimen, whether the animal is ingested, touched, or causes an injury to the body (scratch, etc.).
Outbreaks: SARS and MERS
The first major outbreak caused by the coronavirus took place in Beijing in 2002, when a strain of the virus known as SARS-Cov caused the proliferation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, a disease that, as its name indicates, affects the respiratory system and in some cases can lead to death. In this case, the center of propagation was a food market in Canton and the origin was a bat.
Initially, the country underestimated the disease, so the virus spread uncontrollably, affecting the medical personnel who received the infected and everyone who had contact with them. Once the medical alert was declared, the virus was controlled, however, by then it had already spread to other countries in Asia, causing the death of more than 800 people. Thousands were infected. At the time, China’s response to the emergency was criticized.
In 2012, a new type of coronavirus was discovered, MERS-CoV (also known as MERS), which was transmitted from animals, in this case, dromedary, to humans, causing serious damage to the respiratory system. The first cases were reported in Saudi Arabia and Qatar, and although human-to-human contagion was low, the WHO issued an alert shortly after. However, the virus spread, both in the Middle East and in Europe, as many travelers (without symptoms) arrived home infected.
As of today, several cases of the virus can be found, in most of these, the infected person was for a short time in the Middle East. Cases have been confirmed in the United States, France, the Philippines, Turkey, and South Korea, among others.
New outbreak: COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)
At the end of 2019, a new outbreak of the virus emerged in China, today called 2019nCov, COVID-19, or Wuhan Coronavirus. The epicenter was a market for live animals and although its origin is not certain, it is believed to come from the pangolins. The first reported cases were of people who were in the market, relatives, medical personnel, and visitors who were in the area. The virus appears to be transmitted by close contact. After the report of the first cases and the taking of measures by the Chinese government, the inhabitants of Wuhan were isolated, while in other countries measures were extreme pending a statement from the WHO.
Although initially, the WHO was cautious, in light of the new cases and the rapid spread of the disease, on January 30th the WHO declared an international emergency. By then, the virus had already reached Thailand, Japan, South Korea, the United Kingdom, the United States, Singapore, France, and Germany, among other countries. In March, the first cases appear in Latin America and Africa. Among the countries most affected by the virus are: Italy, the United States, Spain, the United States, and South Korea.
Currently, many countries have taken precautions such as isolation, border closures, cancellation of classes, public events, and the shutdown of transportation systems. Also, due to the spread of the virus, many supplies have been depleted. It should be noted that the virus is especially dangerous for the elderly and children. These are the most affected by the virus, as are people who suffer from other diseases at the time of contracting the virus.
How to avoid contagion?
As has been mentioned in the media, the best way to avoid contagion is to wash your hands regularly. Places where many people gather and hospitals should also be avoided if it is not an emergency. In case of symptoms or deterioration, attention should be requested through the means provided by each country. Isolation in this case could prevent contagion from others. Since there is still no treatment or cure for the disease, the patient’s recovery depends on the care taken in the days after the infection.
By November 2020, the first vaccine candidates appeared. By February 2021, around 10 vaccines had been licensed for public use.
Symptoms and differences with the Flu
The person infected with the virus will have a dry cough, fever, sore throat, headache, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Unlike the flu, the virus is not accompanied by sneezing, nasal congestion, or diarrhea.
Chronology of COVID-19
December 31st: China communicates about the outbreak to the WHO.
January 1st: The animal market, the epicenter of the virus, is closed. January 9th: WHO announces to the world about the new type of coronavirus.
January 11th: First death.
January 13th: The virus reaches Thailand (first case outside China)
January 16th: First case in Japan.
January 21st: First case in the United States.
January 24: First case in Europe.
January 30th: An international health emergency is declared.
February 13th: The number of infected rises to 46,997 worldwide.
March 11th, 2020: WHO declares the new outbreak a pandemic.
Football or Soccer history
Although we want to go back to the History of Soccer, we must bear in mind that its roots and rules were not typical of the sport we know today.
Being Xeng-T emperor, in the 5th century, he forced the soldiers to play a ball game known as Tsú-Shú; meaning Tsú: kick and Shú: ball.
In the 2nd century b.C. in China, a game was held that consisted of disputing the ball vigorously with the rivals, and then, with the use of the feet and hands, passing the ball over a cord held by two posts, which today we know as “goal.”
In these times it is when the raw leather is wrapped in several roots; giving birth to the leather ball. Its inventor was FU-HI. It was used in the Chinese dynasty then, as training in the military fields. Even when a soldier violated the code, he was forced to dominate the ball without dropping it, if so, his punishment was dropped.
A century later, in Egypt, the ball game is performed as a fertility ritual. This game is adopted by its neighboring towns India and Persia, obtaining the ball as the object of the game.
We can also find in America how the Aztecs practiced for years the game called Tlachitli, which was a mix between tennis, football and basketball. In the game the use of the hands was prohibited and the losing team captain was sacrificed as part of the game.
In 1855 Charles Goodyear built and patented the first soccer ball which consisted of a rudimentary vulcanized rubber ball.
However, if we want to talk about the History of Soccer per se, we should talk about how the Football Association was founded in England in 1863, thus being the first governing body of that sport. Stipulating from there the rules and style of play of what is today the most famous sport in the world.
In the year of 1900, Soccer is included in the Olympic Games and recognized as such. Later in 1902 Argentina and Uruguay meet in the first International match outside the British Isles.
In 1904, FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) was founded in Paris, France. Who from that moment was dedicated to regulate and organize the meetings worldwide.
Japanese anime or animation emerged at the beginning of the 20th century influenced by animation and the world of cinema developed in the United States, later it was modified and claimed Japanese culture. The anime-style as we know it began to develop in the late 1950s, when the production company Toei Studios and the different series based on short sleeves or cartoons, such as Tetsuwan Atomu, also known as Astro Boy. From the 1980s and 1990s, the anime became popular, appearing large cult series such as Dragon Ball, Neon Genesis Evangelion, Sailor Moon, Detective Conan, Rurouni Kenshin, and Cowboy Bebop, among others. In the new millennium, the Japanese animated industry has been booming, providing new content every season based on successful manga, light novels, video games, and music.
The first Japanese animations were small short films developed at the end of the 1910s, largely inspired by American animation, in these, folk and comic themes were addressed. The first short film was Namakura Gatana by Junichi Kouchi, it was two minutes long, the story told the story of a man with his katana (Japanese sword or saber). In the following decade, the duration of the short films was extended to ten or fifteen minutes, in which typical oriental tales were represented. Among the pioneer artists of this era are Oten Shimokawa, Junichi Kouchi, Seitaro Kitayama and Sanae Yamamoto; by this time the short film Obasuteyama (The Mountain Where Old Women Are Abandoned) by Yamamoto was published.
During the 30s and 40s, the Japanese animated industry went through a series of changes, the stories were neglected and western stories were taken into account. A short time later the anime Norakuro (1934) of Mituyo Seo, one of the first animations based on a manga. Since then this became a frequent practice. By the end of the 1930s, World War II broke out, a warlike confrontation in which Japan was involved as a member of the Axis powers, at which time the animations became war propaganda. At the end of the war, the country was occupied by the allied powers led by the United States, which seriously affected the country that was going through a deep economic crisis.
Industry development and international boom
In the course of the crisis, the manga and anime industry became popular in the country, thus establishing the basis for the development of the own animated style that occurred around the middle of the 20th century. It was around this time that Toei Studios, an animation film producer, emerged as one of the key figures in the history of anime. This company was a pioneer in the animation of Japan, provided various productions that allowed the advancement of animation in the country. The company’s first animation was Koneko no rakugaki, a short thirteen-minute film published in 1957. The following decade the company grew by focusing on the development of feature films. Other companies such as Mushi Pro, a producer that made the animation of Tetsuwan Atomu (Astro Boy) by Osamu Tezuka, mangaka and animator, one of the most relevant artists of the Japanese animated industry of the 20th century.
Between the 1960s and 1970s, the anime of robots (mecha) became popular appearing iconic series such as Tetsujin 28-gō and Mazinger Z or Gundam, for this same period the popular Doraemon series (1973), based on the homonymous anime, began to air Fujiko Fujio, a series that tells the story of a cosmic robot cat that has attached to its body a bag from which it subtracts various artifacts which are used in the adventures of Doraemon and his human friend Nobita. In the 1980s and 1990s, Japanese animation boomed internationally, which led to many series beginning to dub into English and Spanish, in these years cult series such as Dragon Ball, based on the manga of Akira Toriyama. Saint Seiya also known as The Knights of the Zodiac, Captain Tsubasa, exported as Super champions; Rurouni Kenshin, known in the west as Samurai X, Neon Genesis Evangelion of Hideaki Anno; Pokémon, Ranma ½, and Sakura Card Captor, among others.
In 2000, the already booming anime is largely massified by the acceptance and the huge fan base that it had acquired at the time, these followers known as otakus, boosted the Japanese animated industry. Since then there have been numerous animated productions that have been distributed worldwide, among the most prominent series of the new millennium are One Piece, Naruto, Bleach, Fullmetal Alchemist, Inuyasha, Yu-Gi-Oh, Rozen Maiden, Kuroshitsuji, and Death Note, all are ace based on sleeves that when becoming successful, allowed the development of the animated series.
At present, any manga that has a large number of followers is very likely to have adapted in an animated series, such as Hunter x Hunter, Pandora Hearts, Ao no Exorcist, Mirai Nikki, Bakuman and Shingeki no Kyojin, among many others, light novels have been adapted that have become popular as Durarara!!, Boku wa Tomodachi ga Sukunai, Sword Art Online, and My Youth Romantic Comedy Is Wrong, As I Expected, among others. In recent years, the Yaoi and Yuri genres have been popularized in which romantic relationships between people of the same sex are addressed, among these series it is possible to rescue Junjō Romantica, Sekaiichi Hatsukoi, No. 6, Aoi Hana, Sasameki Koto and Yagate Kimi ni Naru
At present, the Japanese animated industry produces numerous series, ova, and films per year, becoming one of the strongest industries in the world of animation. Among the most prominent people in this industry is Hayao Miyazaki, founder of Studio Ghibli, a studio where films such as My Neighbor Totoro, The Incredible Vagabond Castle, The Journey of Chihiro, and Ponyo, among others, likewise, stand out in the present, artist Makoto Shinkai, creator of 5 centimeters per second, Hoshi Wo Ou Kodomo, Kotonoha no Niwa and Kimi no Na Wa.
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