Pablo Neruda biography
Pablo Neruda, one of the greatest poets of the Chilean, Latin American and world literature of the 20th century. He was born in Parral (Chile) on July 12, 1904. His first name Ricardo Eliécer Naftalí Reyes Basoalto. The influence of his life and work transcends the literary field.
Son of José del Carmen Reyes Morales (Railway Worker) and Rosa Neftalí Basoalto Opazo (School teacher, deceased when Neruda was a month old). In 1906 the family moved to Temuco (City and Commune of Chile) where his father married for the second time with Trinidad Candia Marverde, whom Neruda called “mother.” Pablo Neruda studied at the Liceo de Hombres until his sixth year of humanities in 1920. While still studying in 1917 he published his first article “Entusiasmo y Perseverancia” in the newspaper La Mañana de Temuco. In 1918 he published in the magazine Corre Vuela, his first poems: “My Eyes” and “Spring.”
In 1919 he obtained the third place in the Floral Games of Maule with the poem “Ideal Communion.”
The city of Temuco had a lot of influence in his career, due to its natural environment, its forests, lakes, rivers, and mountains marked his poetic world forever. In this city, he wrote a large part of his works that integrated his first book of poems “Crepusculario.”
In 1920 he began to collaborate in the Selva Austral Literary Magazine; It is important to note that it was here that he met Gabriela Mistral, who influenced him with readings of the greatest authors of Russian literature. In 1921 he decided to adopt the pseudonym of Pablo Neruda, in order to avoid worries to his father for having a son poet. That same year he moved to the city of Santiago to study pedagogy in French at the Pedagogical Institute of the University of Chile. Neruda managed to spread his first works, he competed in poetry contests as in the Spring Festival, organized by the Student Federation of Chile, where he won first place with his poem “The Song of the Party.”
In this early period his work was marked by a self-referential poetry, personal experiences about love and nostalgia but at the same time characterized by the sensitivity of expressing the feelings of others.
In 1923 with great acceptance of critics like Raúl Silva Castro and Pedro Prado; Neruda published “Crepusculario” where he gathered part of his first writings.
In the year of 1924, he published “Twenty Poems of Love” and “A Desperate Song” which shows the influence of modernism. Then he expressed a desire for formal renewal in three short books he published in 1926: “The Dweller and his Hope”; “Rings” and “Tentative of the Infinite Man.”
In 1927 he began a diplomatic career where he began to travel through the lands of Burma, Singapore, Java, China, Argentina, and Paris, where he met the Peruvian poet César Vallejo, with whom he established a friendship throughout his life; later he traveled to Mexico, Guatemala, and Cuba.
In 1930 being Consul in Batavia (Java), he married Marie Antoinette Agenaar (Dutch) with whom he returned to Chile in 1932. From this union a girl named Malva Marina was born, born in 1934 but, at the age of 8 years, died.
In 1934, Pablo Neruda returned to Spain as Consul, cultivating a rich friendship with the Spanish literary generation of 1927, whose maximum representative was Federico García Lorca.
In 1935 Neruda directed the magazine “Caballo Verde para la Poesía” where he was a colleague of the poets of the Generation of ’27. That same year he published “Residencia en la Tierra” and meets Delia del Carril, who was his second wife but who later, in 1956 would get divorced from.
In 1936 the Spanish Civil War broke out, the murder of his friend the poet Garcia Lorca occurred. Pablo Neruda, an ardent defender of the Republic, moved to Paris. After the defeat, he collaborated with the transfer of Spanish exiles to Chile, he also wrote his amazing work: “Spain in the Heart” in 1937.
In 1939, the government of the Popular Front appointed him Consul in Paris and was in charge of Spanish immigration.
In 1945, once again in Chile, he was elected Senator for the Communist Party and awarded the “National Literature Prize.”
In 1948 the Chilean President Gabriel González Videla opened a campaign of persecution against the unions and the opposition which led Neruda into hiding and exile and in 1949 he took refuge in several European countries.
In 1950 his “Canto General” appeared in Mexico, which in Chile was published clandestinely due to the cursed Law dictated by Gabriel González Videla; Canto General is a unique and monumental work, a poetic and literary creation of Latin American history and identity, from which “Alturas de Macchu Picchu” is revealed, considered one of the highest peaks of Latin American and Universal poetry. Received the “International Peace Prize” for his poem “Que Despierte el Leñador”
He returned to Chile in 1952, published anonymously “Los Versos del Capitán” (dedicated to Matilde). In 1953 he received the “Stalin de la Paz” award in Moscow. In 1954, he began his lecture series at the University of Chile. His fifty anniversaries are celebrated with a variety of tributes attended by writers from all over the socialist world, several countries of America. Donates his library to the University of Chile, created the Neruda Foundation for the Development of Poetry and publishes his books “Elemental Odes and Grapes and the Wind.”
In 1955, he separated from Delia del Carril and moved to the house of the Chascona, with Matilde Urrutia. He published a diverse process in the book Trips. Make more visits to socialist countries, in addition to Italy, France, Brazil and Argentina. When he returned from this tour he published in Chile “Nuevas Odas Elementales” in the year 1956. In 1958, he published his book “Estravagario” (with a change in his poetry). And in 1959 on a trip to Venezuela he meets Fidel Castro. In 1960 after a trip through different European countries he arrived in Havana (Cuba), publishing his book “Canción de Gesta” in homage to the Cuban revolution.
In 1961, in Chile, he published “Las Piedras de Chile” and “Cantos ceremoniales.” His book “Twenty Poems of Love” and “A Desperate Song .” Pablo Neruda is named Academic of the Faculty of Philosophy and Education of the Chilean University, in 1962. In 1964, “Memorial of Isla Negra” appeared in five volumes and in 1965 he is awarded the title of Doctor Honoris Causa, of the University of Oxford (England).
In 1966, he married again with who would be his wife for the rest of his life, Matilde Urrutia. Neruda published “Art of Birds” in a private and illustrated edition, as well as “The house in the sand.” In 1969 he was named honorary member of the Chilean Academy of Language. In 1971, the Swedish Academy awarded Pablo Neruda the “Nobel Prize for Literature” traveled to Stockholm to receive it. In 1972 he made his last appearance in public at the National Stadium where the Chilean people paid tribute to him. And in February 1973, for health reasons, he resigned as ambassador in France. After the military coup of September 11 his health worsened and on the 19th he was transferred from the emergency department to the Santa María Clinic in Santiago de Chile, where he died on September 23, 1973 at the age of 69 due to prostate cancer.
His memoirs titled “I confess that I have lived” were published shortly, taken out of the country clandestinely and ordered by Matilde Urrutia and Miguel Otero Silva.
- Veinte Poems of Love and a Desperate Song.
- Tentative of the Infinite Man.
- The enthusiastic Slinger.
- The inhabitant and his Hope.
- Residence on Earth.
- Spain in the Heart.
- Nuevo Canto de Amor a Stalingrado.
- Tercera Residencia.
- General Song.
- The Verses of the Captain.
- All the Love.
- The Grapes and the Wind.
- Elemental Odes.
- New Elemental Odes.
- One Hundred Sonnets of Love.
- Song of Gesta.
- The Stones of the Sky.
- Stockholm’s Talk.
- The Separated Rose.
- Wake up from the Woodcutter.
- The sea and the Bells.
- The Yellow Heart.
- Winter Garden.
- I confess that I have lived.
- Book of Questions.
- The end of the Journey.
- “Love is so short and forgetting is so long.”
- “I like you when you keep quiet because you are absent.”
- “My nothing saves us from death, unless love saves us from life.” “In a kiss, You will know everything I have kept silent.”
- “Knowing the love of those we love is the fire that feeds life.”
- “For your heart, your chest is enough, for your freedom, my wings are enough.”
Walter Scott Biography
Sir. Walter Scott (August 15, 1771 – September 21, 1832) was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. British writer, poet, and lawyer considered the founder of the historical novel. Scott was one of the key figures of the Romantic Movement in the United Kingdom. He began his long career as a writer at the end of the 18th century, at which time he published the translation of the ballads of G.A. Bürger, The Chase, and William and Helen (1796). Among his most acclaimed writings, are The Lady of the Lake (1810), Guy Mannering (1815), Rob Roy (1817), Ivanhoe (1819), The Monastery (1820), and The Talisman (1825). Most of these works were published anonymously. However, towards the end of the 1820s, the identity of the author was revealed.
Son of Walter Scott, lawyer, and Anne Rutherford, with only two years of age, contracted polio. Disease that seriously affected his health, leaving as a limp in his right leg. At this time, he lived with his grandfather Robert Scott in Sandyknowe. After four years he returned to Edinburgh, city in which he carried out his studies. Subsequently entered the University of Edinburgh, where he studied law, as did his father.
After graduating he began to practice his profession. At this time, he began to collect information about the myths and legends of Scotland while carrying out his duties. This theme was addressed by Scott in different works.
Towards the end of the 1790s he began his career, translating the work of Gottfried A. Bürger, Leonore, as well as the ballads included in The Chase, and William and Helen (1796). Shortly thereafter translated Götz von Berlichingen of Goethe, book based on the life of the poet and adventurer Götz von Berlichingen, known as Iron Hand. At the beginning of the 19th century, he published the collection of ballads collected during his travels, entitled Minstrels of the Scottish Border (1802). This includes famous Scottish ballads such as The Young Tamlane, The Twa Corbies, The Douglas Tragedy, The Wife of Usher’s Well, The Cruel Sister and The Daemon Lover. After its publication, the work had little reception, however, the author continued to update this collection until 1830.
In the mid-1800s, he published the poem The Lay of the Last Minstrel (1805), a writing that was well-received, followed by Ballads and Lyrical Pieces (1806), a written work while serving as secretary of the courts of justice in Edinburgh. Later, Scott published Marmion: a Tale of Flodden Field (1808), a romantic historical poem that ends with the death of the protagonist in the Battle of Flodden Field. Two years later, he published The Lady of The Lake (1810), one of his most acclaimed poems by the author.
He later published The Vision of Don Roderick (1811) and The Bridal of Triermain (1813). In 1814 he published his first novel Waverley, a work set in the Jacobite uprising of 1745 in the United Kingdom; it was published anonymously since the author was a public official. After its publication, the work became a success.
Since then, he published several novels using different pseudonyms as Author of Waverley, Jebediah Cleisbotham, Crystal Croftangry, and Lawrence Templeton, among others. It should be noted that at this time the author’s identity was a fairly well-known secret. After Waverley (1814) wrote Guy Mannering (1815), The Antiquarian (1816), Rob Roy (1818) and Ivanhoe (1819), a novel story set in medieval England that tells the story of Wilfredo de Ivanhoe, noble Saxon, likewise, delves into the contradictions between the Saxon people and the Normans. This is one of the most outstanding works of the author.
Three years later he published The Adventures of Nigel (1822) and Peveril of the Peak (1822), followed by Quintin Durward (1823), a novel set in France by Louis XI. Later published Redgauntlet (1824), Tales of the Crusaders (1825) and Woodstock or The Knights: A Story of 1651 (1826).
That same year the author’s identity was revealed; year in which the author went through one of the most difficult moments of his life, given that his wife Charlotte Carpenter died and the Constable publishing house, in which he had invested a large amount of money he went bankrupt. Leaving a debt of 130,000 pounds, which he paid for the rest of his life.
At the end of the 1820s, he published The Life of Napoleon Buonaparte (1827), a book in which he delves into the life of Napoleon Bonaparte. The following year he published The Beautiful Young Woman of Perth (1828) and Tales of the Grandfather (1828), followed by History of Scotland (1829-1830), The Daughter of the Mist (1829), Bonnie Dundee (1830) and Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft (1831), the author’s last work. At this time, Scott, stopped writing and his health began to deteriorate rapidly. Scott passed away on September 21, 1832, was buried in Dryburgh Abbey.
The author’s work is considered a pioneer in the field of the historical novel, his writings are exalted by critics, since in these he realistically addresses historical events linked to his native Scotland and the Middle Ages, vividly evoking the context in which the protagonist of the history. Scott profoundly influenced the work of European writers, as well as painters and musicians; the writings of this have been represented in the theater, cinema, and television on several occasions.
Marie Kondo Biography
Marie Kondo (October 9, 1984) was born in Tokyo, Japan. Writer and businesswoman, famous for being the creator of the Konmari method. A system that explains the proper way of organizing the home so that only the necessary is available and what makes the owner happy, avoiding the accumulation derived from the tendency to cling to the past. Kondo’s method has become a trend, after the publication of her first book The Magic of Order (2011), in which she delves into the method and highlights the positive aspects of order, emphasizing the serenity and relaxation an organized house inspires, which will be reflected in the daily life of people living in the home.
Kondo was interested at an early age in order and cleanliness, influenced by magazines about decoration and the home that her mother bought. While growing up, she spent a lot of time alone, since her mother took care of her younger sister, who at that time was just a baby. During these years she studied and continued to cultivate her love for order. When she entered the institute she began ordering the shelves while other students practiced sports.
Upon entering the University of Tokyo, she noticed that ordering helped her stay calmed and release the stress produced by the studies and partials. One day she organized for the first time she experienced a state of total calm and perfect order, which motivated her to choose the organization as a profession.
The Konmari method
At 19, while studying at the University of Tokyo, she became a consultant and created the Konmari method, a System in which she explains the proper way to organize the home and other spaces, so that they become spaces of inspiration and serenity, which to some extent influences the mental health of the people who inhabit the place. The Kondo method proposes the elimination of unnecessary things, likewise, on a more personal level, it promotes the termination of unproductive relationships that do not positively influence the person. The goal of the system is to bring happiness and serenity to the person who carries it out.
Konmari is based on the steps that Kondo followed in the organization of her home, as well as certain aspects of Eastern philosophy, feng shui, and inspirational coaching. This is divided into five steps: the first is the selection and organization of clothing, only what is used is chosen, looks good or produces happiness to the owner. After the selection must be organized so that everything is visible and accessible.
The second is focused on books, only those that are of great importance are chose, preventing them from exceeding 30 books. The next step is the papers, keeping what is in force or necessary, then they are stored in folios. The fourth step is the komono, also understood as various objects that you have in the home such as photos, CDs, magazines, among others, of these should only remain what has great emotional value.
Finally, sentimental articles should be selected and organized, as mentioned above, only objects that have a deep sentimental value and that produce happiness should be chosen. If that is not the case, it should be discarded since only objects that do not contribute to growth would be accumulating and peace of the person. This method has been widely disseminated since the publication of Kondo’s first book, entitled The Magic of Order (2011), which was well-received by the public. Shortly thereafter launched happiness after order (2012), in which delves into the method and well-being that it brings; subsequently published The magic of order. An illustrated novel (2017).
These books were transformed into lectures, audiobooks, and articles, through which, Kondo, has become one of the most prominent figures of recent years. After the publication of these, the author has participated in various radio and television programs in Japan and other countries, such as Ellen Show and Rachael Ray Show. Also has been interviewed by the Time Magazine, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Vogue Magazine, among others.
In 2015, she was included in the list of the 100 most influential people in the world created by Time magazine, list in which the outstanding Japanese writer Haruki Murakami has also been included. At present, her company has a long list of clients whom she helps transform her spaces into places of inspiration and serenity. In January 2019, the series Tidying Up with Marie Kondo was launched from Netflix, in which Kondo is seen visiting and organizing homes based on her method.
Joël Dicker Biography
Joël Dicker (June 16, 1985) Born in Geneva, Switzerland. Swiss writer considered one of the most relevant writers of recent years. Before devoting himself fully to writing he studied for a short time Drama in Paris, and Law at the University of Geneva, a career that ended in 2010; Dicker rose to fame that same year, winning the prestigious Prix des Ecrivains Genevois award, an award aimed at highlighting unpublished works. Subsequently published the successful books: The Last Days of Our Fathers (2011), The Truth About The Harry Case Quebert (2012), The Book Of The Baltimore (2015) and The Disappearance Of Stephanie Mailer (2018). Their success turned Dicker into a phenomenon of international sales.
Son of a high school teacher and a bookstore; he has three brothers. Dicker spent his childhood in Geneva, the city where he began his academic training. While studying he began to be interested in writing, an interest he cultivated by becoming the manager of nature and animal magazine. After attending elementary school, he entered the Collège Madame de Staël, an institution where he continued polishing his writing skills. It is worth mentioning that although he was attracted to writing, he did not like to study.
At the end of this training period, he moved to Paris, where he began taking acting classes at the renowned French drama school, Cours Florent. After a year he dropped out of school and returned to his hometown, where shortly thereafter he began studying law at the University of Geneva. At 19 he wrote his first work, The Tiger (2005), a short story set in Tsarist Russia, specifically in the government of Tsar Nicholas II. Five years later he graduated, obtaining the title of Lawyer.
Joël Dicker’s work
The trajectory of the young writer began in the mid-2000s, at which time he published the story, The Tiger (2005), a work he presented in a youth literary contest but was dismissed since for the judges it was suspected that such work was written by someone so young. In the story, he deepens on topics such as existential dilemmas, violence, the possibility of redemption and the great questions that human beings pose, this was set in the government of the last Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II.
Five years later he won the Prix des Ecrivains Genevois prize, awarded by the Geneva Writers Society for the best manuscript not published for the work The Last Days of Our Fathers, written that was published a year later thanks to the prize. The Last Days of Our Fathers (2011), set in the period covered by World War II, focused on the strategy of Winston Churchill and the actions of the Special Operations Executive, an espionage agency infiltrated in the Nazi army lines.
In 2012, he published the criminal mystery, The Truth About The Case Harry Quebert (2012), a work that revolves around Marcus Goldman’s investigation of the murder of Nola Kellergan, who was close to the friend and mentor of writer Harry Quebert. This paper was awarded the Goncourt Prize and the Novel Grand Prix of the French Academy.
In 2018, the work was adapted to television in the miniseries format, which was directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud and starring Patrick Dempsey. Three years after the publication of The Truth About The Harry Quebert Case (2012), The Baltimore Book (2015) came out, written that continues the investigations of the young writer Marcus Goldman, this time he investigates the Goldman family of Baltimore, from the period of opulence to the decline of the family and the emergence of drama.
The most recent work of the author is The Disappearance of Stephanie Mailer (2018), a thriller that revolves around the mysterious disappearance of a journalist who at that time had discovered the irregularities of an old homicide case, by revealing this information to the police officer in charge of case disappears.
Henri de Saint-Simon
Henri de Saint-Simon Biography
Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Count of Saint-Simon (October 17, 1760 – May 19, 1825) was born in Paris, France. Historian and political theorist, he was one of the founders and theorists of modern socialism. The Count of Saint-Simon was part of the military who fought in the War of Independence of the United States (1775-1783), later joined the revolutionary cause in Paris becoming a Republican.
He was appointed president of the Paris Commune in 1792, at which time he renounced his noble title and changed his name to Claude Henri Bonhomme, after being accused of speculation and spending a short time in jail focused on writing, publishing the books The industrial system (Du système industriel) and New Christianity (Nouveau Christianisme).
He was born into an aristocratic family. Among his relatives is Duke Louis de Rouvroy de Saint-Simon, author of Memories (1739-1752), a book in which he described the court of Louis XIV of France. Due to family tradition, he began his military career at an early age actively participating in the United States War of Independence (1775-1783), in favor of the colonies. After returning to the country began the revolutionary movement that ended in the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789-1799), political and social conflict that marked the history of the eighteenth century, driving profound changes in various parts of the world as the establishment of the republican model. During the development of the revolution, Saint-Simon became a Republican and was appointed president of the Paris Commune in 1792.
In the course of his government he was accused of speculation of national assets and criticized for his close relationship with Georges-Jacques Danton, which caused him to be detained between 1793 and 1794. During the Directory (1795-1799), Saint-Simon lived on comfortably, since he had a good fortune, at that time his home was visited by prominent figures of the time such as Gaspard Monge, Joseph-Louis de Lagrange, and Guillaume Dupuytren. Later, he traveled to Germany, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland, in the course of the trip he began writing his first works.
At the beginning of the 19th century, he published his first work entitled Letter from a resident in Geneva to his contemporaries (Lettres d’un habitant de Genève à ses contemporains), where he outlined what he would later define as capacity theory. After spending several years living comfortably, his fortune began to decrease, which is why he faced serious economic problems. To sustain himself he wrote several scientific and philosophical articles with which he managed to stabilize his economic situation. For this same period he mentioned one of his best-known phrases in the newspaper L’Organisateur:
If France lost its main physicists, chemists, bankers, merchants, farmers, blacksmiths, etc., it would be a body without a soul. On the other hand, if I lost all the men considered most important in the State, the fact would not bring more pain than the sentimental one
This statement was seen negatively and he was prosecuted for it. Starting the 1820s he published his next work called The Industrial System (Du système industriel, 1821) and four years later he published his most exalted work New Christianity (Nouveau Christianisme, 1825), a work in which he criticized the doctrine of Jesus and sat the basis for establishing a new Christianity that was more in line with the original evangelical teachings. After the publication of the book, he was ruined again, which is why he planned to take his life off of a shot. However, he failed and was injured in one eye, a short time later driven by one of his disciples decided to create the newspaper Le Producteur, but shortly before his appearance, he passed away. The renowned French theorist died on May 19, 1825, in Paris.
After his death, his approaches and ideas were disseminated by his disciples who created the ideological movement known as Saint-simonianism which was of great relevance in later generations influencing the formation of utopian socialism. His ideas were exalted by philosophers Karl Marx and Émile Durkheim. Saint-Simonianism’s thinking was based on his personal experience during the development of the French Revolution and the fall with the coup d’état orchestrated by Napoleon Bonaparte. In this, he stated that the government should be managed by industrialists such as workers, peasants, and owners, mentioned that the place that clerics had in the social order should be occupied by scientists; religion should guide social classes so that they improve their quality of life.
Finally, he mentioned that the redistribution of goods should be based on the capacity of each individual. These ideas influenced the work of Auguste Comte, John Stuart Mill, and various socialist philosophers.
John Ruskin Biography
John Ruskin (February 8, 1819 – January 20, 1900) writer, painter, art critic, and reformer. He was born in London, England. His parents were Margaret Cox and John James Ruskin, a rich merchant who instilled in him a passion for art, literature, and adventure. He studied at the University of Oxford. In 1837, he entered the University of Oxford. Then, he founded a drawing school for students: the Company of St George, for social improvement, useful arts, and the defense of an ornamentalism linked to the reform of society.
He received socialist influences, especially from the group of “Sheffield socialists,” as did William Morris. He advanced a postulate regarding the relationship between art and morals, these dissertations appear in the first volume of Modern Painters (1843), a work that provided an important place among art critics. Later, he published The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849) and The Stones of Venice (1851-1853), where the moral, economic and political importance of architecture were analyzed. In 1851 he became interested in pre-Raphaelist painters such as Dante Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones, and John Everett Millais.
His ideas denounce the aesthetic numbness and the pernicious social effects of the Industrial Revolution. His work at Oxford ended in the rejection of the vivisection practices carried out in the laboratories of that institution. After marrying Effie Gray, he published Conferences on architecture and painting (1854), Conferences on the political economy of art (1858) and Fors Clavigera (1871-1884).
Ruskin suffered some psychiatric episodes and little by little he lost the sense of reality. Finally, he died in Lancashire on January 20, 1900. He aroused the admiration of generations of Victorian artists, especially as an introducer of the neo-Gothic taste in England, the greatest champion of pre-Raphaelism. Currently, part of his works is preserved between drawings of nature and different Gothic cathedrals at the University of Oxford.
- Modern painters
- The seven lamps of architecture
- The stones of Venice
- Conferences on architecture and painting
- The political economy of art
- Two ways
- Sesame and lilies
- The morale of dust
- The crown of wild olive
- Fors Clavigera
- The Amiens Bible
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