Jared Leto Biography
Jared Joseph Leto was born in Bossier City, Louisiana, United States, on December 26, 1971 (currently, 46 years old) is an American multi-instrumentalist, actor, director and producer, Oscar winner, Golden Globe, SAG, among other awards. He is also known as a director by the name of Bartholomew Cubbins but is best known as the vocalist, guitarist, bassist, pianist, composer, and founder of the alternative rock band 30 Seconds to Mars.
He lived in his hometown until his parents divorced when he was little, custody was left to his mother Constance After the separation, Jared lived with his older brother, Shannon Leto, his mother and grandfather. Jared and his family moved to different places like Colorado, Virginia, Wyoming, and Haiti for work reasons.
The two brothers, influenced from childhood by the love of art for their mom, formed a rock band. The first instrument that little Jared learned was a piano. He himself has declared in interviews that his musical influences are: Nirvana, Alice in Chains, Deftones, Led Zeppelin, Guns N ‘Roses, Pearl Jam, The Goo Goo Dolls, Stone Temple Pilots, Everclear, Pink Floyd, Radiohead, The Cure, and U2. «I grew up in an atmosphere of actors, musicians, photographers and different theater actors».
He left school when he was in tenth grade, however, after some time, he decided to return and focus on his education by entering Flint Hill High School in Oakton, Virginia. He graduated in 1989 from Emerson Preparatory School. Shortly after, Jared entered the University of Philadelphia, to study art with a specialization in painting. However, his interest turned to act, for which he left his studies as a painter. Later he would move to New York to begin classes on cinema at the New York City’s High School of Visual Arts. Being a student, he wrote and starred in his first short film: Crying Boy.
In 1992 Leto moved to Los Angeles to begin his acting career. In 1993 he got his first roles in television series such as Camp Wilder and Almost Home and My So-Called Life. A year later, he made his television debut in Cool and the Crazy, and his film debut came in the movie How to Make an American Quilt in 1995.
His first leading role was in Prefontaine (1997) which recreated the biography of the runner Steve Prefontaine. For the role, Leto investigated the life of the athlete, his family, and friends, adapting his voice and even his physical form. The transformation was so complete that, seeing it, Steve’s sister was moved to tears. His performance got very good reviews.
After his first leading role, Jared begins to obtain several roles in well-known films, such as Basil (1998), The Thin Red Line (1998), Black and White (1999), Fight Club (1999) and Interrupted Innocence (1999) together Winona Ryder and Angelina Jolie. For this last performance, Leto was nominated for an award from the Broadcast Film Critics Association in the category of best-supporting actor.
Jared tried very hard in his career as an actor, in Requiem for a Dream where he played a heroin addict, his preparation was extreme. Leto lived in the streets of New York and isolated completely, even interrupted contact with his girlfriend at the time, Cameron Diaz, for two months. His physical and emotional health was totally affected, he even lost 28 kilos on purpose, since it was necessary to interpret his character realistically.
Some more recent roles were: Chapter 27 (2007), Awake (2007), Mr. Nobody (2009), Dallas Buyers Club (2013), Suicide Squad (2016).
As for his musical career, Jared (vocalist and guitar) formed in 1998, along with his brother Shannon Leto (drums), the renowned band 30 Seconds To Mars, in Los Angeles, California. What began as a small family project, an illusion of children soon became a call to something bigger. Bassist Matt Wachter joined the band in 2001 and a little later, they also joined Solon Bixler on rhythm guitar and Kevin Drake on acoustic guitar.
Jared despite being a well-known Hollywood actor prefers not to use that information to promote the band. He has said that if the band has triumphed, it is because of their music; in fact, the band refused to play in places where their name is used as an actor to promote their concerts.
In 1999, the band signed their first contract with Virgin Records, with them in 2002, their first album came out, which, in general, received positive reviews. This album is generally described as a concept album.
At the end of 2002, guitarist Solon Bixler left the band due to personal problems. On January 29, 2003, the guitarist and follower of the band, Tomo Milicevic, presented the auditions to be the new guitarist, earning respect and acceptance of the members of the band, achieved his goal. Other albums are A Beautiful Lie (2005), This Is War (2009), Love, Lust, Faith, and Dreams (2013).
Jack the Ripper
Biography of Jack the Ripper
Jack the Ripper, is the name given to a serial killer, this man was the author of five brutal crimes, some investigators would say that there were around 11 murders, in the last months of 1888 in the London marginal neighborhood of Whitechapel. In this area of the city, a large number of immigrants, especially Jews fleeing persecution in Russia and Eastern Europe, were arriving. In this area there were a large number of miserable taverns, prostitutes and violent events every day.
The first murder was perpetrated on the morning of August 31, 1888, where the lifeless body of a woman of very low social condition was found in terrible condition, she was beheaded and found without internal organs. The woman was identified as Mary Ann Nichols. Really, no one understood the reason for such an act. The alarms went off when on September 8th of the same year, another woman appeared in the same horrible circumstances, her body was full of wounds caused by a scalpel and without the presence of her uterus. It was Annie Chapman.
What seemed curious to the authorities was that it was the same type of victim as the previous one: mature woman, very low class and dark past. Unfortunately, the authorities could not find conclusive evidence. The women in this area felt fearful and filled with fear. In almost ten days, Whitechapel witnessed a third murder, Elizabeth Stride was found on Batty St. street. That same night another woman, Catherine Eddowes, was killed and found without her left kidney and uterus. With this situation, Queen Victoria, through correspondence, urged the London police to find the killer.
As a reaction, the authorities began to search for someone who had knowledge of anatomy, as this person skillfully extracted the organs of his victims. On one occasion, a letter signed under the nickname of Jack the Ripper arrived at the authorities, accompanied by half a kidney. After this, several letters were found, all with intimidating, threatening and challenging phrases. But, many of these letters were said to have been invented by some journalists who worked for sensationalist newspapers that profited from these morbid illustrations.
Later, the authorities turned their attention to two suspects, the first, Francis Tumblety, an American doctor. The second suspect was a woman named Mary Pearcy. Ultimately, no conclusive evidence was found against them, although Tumblety was arrested and interrogated. The atmosphere remained tense in the area and the news had reached the entire world. He was the first known international serial killer of the 19th century. While the American doctor was in jail, the fifth murder occurred, the victim was Mary Jane Kelly. This woman was found in her room on November 9, 1888. This led to think that Tumblety was not the criminal.
What is certain is that Jack the Ripper, this legendary serial killer, had a great aberration for women of low social condition; for their sexuality, a sign of this was the attack on sexual organs. He was a misogynistic and defiant person. His character was ruthless, cold and methodical, typical behavior of a psychopath who considered women as objects. His story impacted and still continues to amaze people.
The popularity of this character is such that every year books are published that propose new hypotheses about the identity of the criminal or simply narrate this story based on primary sources. For example, in the novel The Big Book of Jack the Ripper, not only are the main theories, texts and articles of that time gathered, but also unusual literary accounts. This was published in 2015 and represented a bestseller. Another novel inspired by Jack the Ripper is From Hell (phrase used in a letter written by him).
Now, not only has the literary world been immersed in the study of this secret character, but also museum institutions. A private museum was opened right in the areas where the murders took place, where the history of this figure is reconstructed in a creative way. In this museum, they also exhibit the possible suspects of this series of murders. Recently, the case of Jack the Ripper was reopened, making use of medical and forensic technologies that were almost non-existent at that time.
Entrepreneur Russell Edwards purchased a shawl that is said to have been found near the body of one of the murdered women, Eddowes. He bought this at an auction and with the help of Jari Louhelainen, an expert in genetic material analysis, made the historic discovery. The results confirmed that without a doubt, the cloth had traces of both people, the victim and a man identified as Aaron Kosminski. A man born in the Polish town of Kłodawa, he emigrated to London in 1882, where he worked as a hairdresser. Investigators believe he was 23 years old when he committed the murders and that he was schizophrenic. Sources indicate that after the murders he was confined to a psychiatric center and died there at age 53.
Biography of Alexia Putellas
Alexia Putellas Segura (February 4, 1994) is a football player. She was born in Mollet del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. She is the winner of the 2022 Women’s Ballon d’Or.
The eldest daughter of Jaume Putellas and Elisabeth Segura. She has a younger sister named Alba, who is a model.
Since she was young, she always demonstrated her interest and love for football.
As a child, she used to play with her friends during recess. The athlete comments that she was the bossy one and the one who mainly directed the teams. At the age of 7, she was enrolled in the women’s team of CE Sabadell.
At around the age of 10, she had a talk with her father and told him that she wanted to join the summer camps organized by the former player Xavi Hernandez.
Alexia debuted with Espanyol in the First Division, when she was 16 years old. And even though it wasn’t the team of her dreams, it gave her the opportunity to pursue her dream.
She played for the team during the 2010/11 season, in which she achieved first place in group B of the first phase and second place in group B of the second phase. She played for this team from 2006 to 2011.
The next year, she signed with the Levante U.D. team. Her time with this club did not result in any titles, but it attracted the attention of several teams. Even though her tenure with this team was only between 2011 and 2012, Alexia scored 15 goals in 34 games.
In 2012, while going through a difficult time, she received a call with the proposal to sign with F.C. Barcelona. Her role in the team became increasingly important during the 2012/13 season.
Currently, Alexia Putellas is the captain of the Catalan club, F.C. Barcelona.
Some of the achievements she has accomplished with her current club are:
Spanish League (2013) Queen’s Cup (2013) Spanish League (2014) Queen’s Cup (2014) Spanish League (2015) Queen’s Cup (2017) Spanish Super Cup (2020) Spanish League (2020) Queen’s Cup (2020) Spanish League (2021) Queen’s Cup (2021) Champions League (2021) Spanish Super Cup (2022) Primera Iberdrola (2022) Queen’s Cup (2022)
Unfortunately, due to an injury, we will be without Alexia on the field for between 10 and 12 months. She suffered a cruciate ligament injury, and therefore will miss much of the 2022/23 season. It is also very possible that she will not be able to participate in the Euro Cup, Champions League and Women’s World Cup 2023.
It is said that we may see Alexia Putellas’s return to the field as early as the 8th month of 2023.
Ballon d’Or: 2021 and 2022
On October 17, 2022, Alexia Putellas won the Female Golden Ball award for the second consecutive year. She is the first Spanish player to win it twice, the only Spanish player to win it before was Luis Suarez in 1960.
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In 2012, Alexia lost one of her biggest family pillars, her father passed away when she was 18 years old. Although her relationship with her mother and sister is nice, it does not compare to the relationship she had with her father, as he always supported, guided and advised Alexia in her football career from the beginning. During her acceptance speech for the Balon d’Or Femenin, she dedicated a few words to her late father, Jaume Putellas, thanking him for everything he did for her.
“If you allow me, I will try to dedicate this to someone who will always be very special to me. For whom I do everything, I hope you are very proud of everything your daughter does, wherever you are, this is for you, dad.”.
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Alexia is very private about her personal life, so there is no information about a current partner.
However, there will always be rumors. There are rumors that Alexia and her teammate, Jennifer Hermoso, may have more than just a beautiful friendship.
Alexia Putellas is a very private person when it comes to her personal life, so there is no information available about her current relationship status.
However, there is a rumor that she and her team mate, Jennifer Hermoso, may have more than just a close friendship. The rumor started when they were seen spending more time together, traveling, at gatherings and with family; also due to their support for the LGBTQ+ community. It is worth noting that neither of the soccer players has publicly addressed the topic.
Curiosities about Alexia Putellas
She has a dog named Nala. She is the first player of the Spanish National Team to achieve 100 international caps. She had a dog named Nuka. Her favorite players are Alex Morgan, Louisa Necib, Xavi Hernandez and Gerard Pique. She loves sports. One of her favorite foods is Japanese food.
She is active on Instagram. On it we can see content of her games, trainings, press conferences; she also shows her family and adventurous side. Alexia Putellas has more than 2.3 million followers on Instagram.
Biography of Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud ( May 6, 1856 and died September 23, 1939) was a neurologist of Czech origin. He was born in Příbor, where his father was a wool trader. Because his father was quite old at the time of his birth and had much older siblings, Sigmund developed great curiosity and asked many questions from a young age. He was very intelligent and skilled from his youth. The economic crisis in the country forced the family to move to Vienna, where they continued to face economic problems due to his father’s lack of employment.
Despite his dislike for Vienna due to these difficulties, Freud lived in this city until one year before his death. For a time, due to his Jewish status, he had to exile himself to London due to the Anschluss, the annexation of Austria to the pan-Germanic project of Greater Germany led by the Austrian chancellor Arthur Seyss-Inquart. Although figures such as Roosevelt and Mussolini intervened, these efforts were unsuccessful and his works were burned.
Despite the persecution, Freud’s family remained faithful to the Jewish community and their customs, although they were not particularly religious since his father leaned towards freethinking, and as a result, Freud had lost his religious beliefs since adolescence. Since graduating with excellent grades from school, an achievement achieved through the efforts of his parents, he showed a lot of interest and motivation for his future. Although he initially inclined towards law, he ultimately decided to study medicine, his intention was not to practice it but to study the human condition with scientific rigor.
After a period at university, he began to focus on biological research, from 1876 to 1882 he worked in the laboratory of physiologist Ernst von Brücke, where he studied some nerve structures of animals and the anatomy of the human brain. During this time he met Viennese doctor Josef Breuer, who was key to his economic and intellectual development. He also met Martha Bernays, daughter of a family of Jewish intellectuals, with whom he later got married.
Beginning of his career
At that time, to assume the responsibilities of being a husband, he began to work as a doctor, putting aside his investigative career without having a true conviction about this decision. However, he managed to acquire the clinical experience necessary to achieve a certain prestige. In that sense, he obtained important jobs in various departments of the Vienna General Hospital, deciding to specialize in neuropathology. In 1884, he conducted a study on the therapeutic use of cocaine, generating various criticisms because he experimented recklessly with people whom he seriously affected. For this reason, his reputation was somewhat tarnished.
In 1885, he began teaching neuropathology at the Medical Faculty of Vienna, and later on, psychoanalysis. His great intellect allowed him to obtain a scholarship to make a study trip for a year in the city of Paris. He spent several months in the neurology service of the Salpêtrière under the direction of Jean-Martin Charcot, then the most important French neurologist. There he learned about the manifestations of hysteria and the effects of hypnosis and suggestion in its treatment.
Beginning in Psychoanalysis
Freud was known for being an extremely jealous man, which caused him several problems and conflicts with his wife. Upon returning to Vienna, Freud opened a private practice as a neuropathologist, using electrotherapy and hypnosis as treatments for nervous diseases. His book written with Josef Breuer on the treatment of hysteria through hypnosis was a great success, entitled Studies on Hysteria (1895).
From that moment on, Freud began to outline his first ideas about psychoanalysis. Freud began speaking about the method of “free association” and at that time many medical friends had preferred to leave him alone. However, this did not prevent him from continuing with his research and emerging psychoanalytic concepts such as the unconscious, repression, and transference. In 1899, he published his famous work The Interpretation of Dreams, edited in 1900. Five years later, he published Three Contributions to the Theory of Sexuality.
Although his work was innovative and admired, it had few followers. However, in 1906 the situation changed; he managed to consolidate a circle of doctors who later became a psychoanalytic society. In 1908, they held the First Psychoanalytic Congress in Salzburg. From that moment on, his recognition was international, he was invited to the United States to give a series of lectures at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, where his thinking had caused great admiration. In 1910, the International Psychoanalytic Society was founded in Nuremberg, led by Freud’s colleague, Jung, who led it until 1914.
Some works and his deterioration of health
In 1916, Freud published Introduction to Psychoanalysis. He continued to write important books such as The Future of an Illusion (1927), Civilization and Its Discontents (1930), and Moses and Monotheism (1939). During this period, he was diagnosed with jaw cancer and had to undergo several surgeries. From then on, his illness often hindered his intellectual production, but he managed to complete several texts. Finally, he lost the battle against his illness on September 23rd, 1939.
Contribution to psychology
The main contribution of Freud to psychology was his concept of the unconscious. Freud believed that a person’s behavior is deeply determined by repressed thoughts, desires, and memories, which can strongly influence their conduct. As a treatment method, psychoanalysis seeks to bring these memories to consciousness to free the individual from their negative influence. Without a doubt, his theories received important criticisms, but they still represent a great contribution to psychology. It is undoubtable that the spread of psychoanalysis revolutionized the view of human beings and its influence extended to fields like philosophy, literature, and the arts.
- The Interpretation of Dreams
- Civilization and its Discontents
- Totem and Taboo
- Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality
- The Ego and the Id
History of Philosophy
History of Philosophy
The history of philosophy is closely linked to the emergence of religions and states in antiquity. Many authors agree that the interest in knowledge reached its peak in Greek cities, with a strong concentration in Athens. Thanks to this convergence, history accounted for figures such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Over time, the conceptual development of philosophy integrated the disruptive postulates of thinkers like Descartes, Leibniz, and Kant. These philosophers are commonly known as “Classics of philosophy”.
For a long time, philosophy encompassed all aspects of knowledge. However, as knowledge developed, the different sciences acquired their own identity and became autonomous. Nonetheless, philosophy maintained its ability to systematically address the broader and more general concepts about the world and the human being.
Like religion and mythology, philosophy seeks the essence of things, the origin and cause of fundamental phenomena, the explanation of their properties, movements, effects, and purpose. However, philosophy is distinguished by being a rational, coherent, and rigorous search.
“Philosophy is the systematic effort to find answers, to resolve the central mysteries of existence”.
Philosophy is a set of theoretical elements that necessarily reflect the social reality of each historical era and situation. As such a reflection, philosophy is influenced by the contradictory social, economic, and political interests of its time. Even escapism, the attempt to evade society’s reality, can be a way of expressing certain interests.
“Concept, origin, and method of philosophy”
The word philosophy is composed of two Greek words: “phileo” (love) and “sophia” (knowledge or wisdom). Its literal meaning is “love of wisdom“, but it does not convey the main meanings of philosophy. There are different definitions of this discipline, as well as the reluctance of some philosophers to give a precise definition. In addition, the content of philosophy has changed from its inception to the present day. Today, philosophy is understood as a discipline of generalized concepts about the world and the place occupied by human beings in it. It is an attempt to understand the reality and the essence of the things of life and of the human being, to comprehend the meaning and purpose of existence.
Philosophy arises at the beginning of civilization, that is, during the predominance of the Asian mode of production or slavery in China, India, Egypt, and Greece. Specifically, it appears in Greece in the 7th century BC.
In previous social formations, corresponding to the times of the wild state and barbarism, abstract thought was manifested in religious mythology but not in philosophy. The necessary historical and social conditions were a higher degree of productivity of work, the separation of intellectual work from physical work, and the splitting of society into antagonistic classes with different conceptions of the world, life, and relations between human beings.
Tradition holds that mathematician Pythagoras was the first scientist to call himself a philosopher. The dominant concern of thinkers at that time was to explain the phenomena of nature.
The philosophical doctrine of nature was the first form of philosophical thought.
Plato said that the first virtue of the philosopher is to be amazed. Manuel García Morente observed in 1937 that a person who finds everything natural, easy to understand and obvious can never be a philosopher. It is necessary to be permanently restless, to be interested in everything, to have the attitude of a child, to be rigorous and accurate in thought.
Plato developed the Socratic method and converted it into dialectic (from the Greek “dialegomai”, which means dialogue). This implies not only asking but also dialoguing, and in this process to purify, to subject to criticism and to clarify the ideas that arise from the dialogue.
Aristotle relied on Plato’s dialectic, gave form and structure to the movement of intuitive reasoning and progress in the succession of affirmations and confirmations. The laws of this movement of rational thought, logic, are Aristotle’s philosophical method.
Philosophers have repeatedly focused on the method of philosophy, revaluing the discoveries of their predecessors, enriching them with their contributions, undertaking new paths and relying on the advances that science is conquering. In this way, they continue the incessant and insatiable philosophical search.
Western philosophy dates back to ancient Greece and is divided into four periods:
1. Ancient philosophy
From the 6th century BC to the decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 6th century AD, this period encompasses many theses and arguments always trying to find the ultimate foundation of all things. In this period, there is an attempt to transcend the cosmovisions and mythologies that prevailed at the time. In this first period, a group of philosophers seeks explanations for the origin of the phenomenon of nature, calling this principle Arjé. Some of the outstanding philosophers in this period are:
- Tales of Miletus: (624-543) a.C. – Water
- Pythagoras: (580-504) a.C. – The number
- Parmenides: (540-470) a.C. – The unique being
- Anaximander(611-546) a.C. – The Apeiron
- Anaximenes(588-524) a.C. – The air
- Democritus (460-370) a.C. – The atom
In Ancient Philosophy, two major periods can also be distinguished: Greek philosophy and Roman philosophy. The period of Greek philosophy developed in Ancient Greece from the 6th century BC until the invasion of Macedonia by the Romans in 148 BC. After the invasion, the period of Roman philosophy began, lasting from the 2nd century BC to the 6th century AD. These two periods are further divided into various stages.
Greek philosophy is generally divided into three stages, namely:
- Pre-Socratic philosophy (between the 7th and 5th centuries BC): or philosophy before Socrates.
- Classical philosophy (between the 5th century BC and the 4th century BC): with Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle among its great exponents.
- Hellenistic philosophy (between the 4th century BC and the 2nd century BC): a stage in which the focus of study changed from the world to the individual being.
Roman philosophy is divided into two stages:
- Philosophy of the Republican era (between the 2nd century BC and the 1st century BC): had among its greatest exponents Cicero and Lucretius.
- Philosophy of the high-imperial period (between the 1st century BC and the 6th century AD): in this, philosophy became increasingly independent of politics.
2. Medieval philosophy
The period of medieval philosophy extends from the 5th century AD, with the fall of the Western Roman Empire, to the 15th century, when the Byzantine Empire fell (1453). This period arose from the relationship between Christianity and Greek thought and developed in Europe and the Middle East.
The most discussed topics in this period were the relationship between reason and faith, the nature and existence of God, and the limits between human freedom and knowledge.
The main philosophers of this period were:
- Saint Augustine Of Hippo: (354-430) AD.
- Isidoro Of Seville: (560 – 636) AD.
- Juan EscotoO Erigena: (810 – 877) AD.
- Avicena: (980 – 1037) AD.
- Averroes: (1126 –1198) AD.
- Saint Thomas Of Aquino: (1225 – 1274) AD.
- William Of Ockham: (1280 – 1349) AD.
3. Modern philosophy
The period of modern philosophy covers from the beginning of the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation to the last years of the 20th century. This period begins with Renaissance philosophy between the 14th and 15th centuries, giving way to modern thought inspired by Descartes and Kant.
In this modern philosophy, at the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 19th century, German idealism developed, of which we can mention:
- Immanuel Kant: (1724 – 1804) AD.
- Friedrich Hegel: (1770 – 1831) AD.
Other currents of modern philosophy were: rationalism (between the 17th and 18th centuries) and empiricism.
4. Contemporary philosophy
The period of contemporary philosophy develops from the end of the 19th century, the 20th century and the 21st century, also known as the Contemporary Age. It originated in the mid-19th century and continues to the present, seeking to analyze the reality of man in its entirety. This period covers all philosophical thought developed after modern philosophy.
In this contemporary philosophy, two major currents emerge:
- Continental philosophy (from Europe)
- Analytic philosophy (from the Anglo-Saxon world)
Each philosophical current gives rise to different schools and traditions. For example, from continental philosophy there are derived existentialism, post-structuralism, social constructivism, critical theory and postmodern philosophy. In analytical philosophy, on the other hand, we find schools and currents such as logical positivism (logical empiricism or neopositivism), naturalism, experimental philosophy, philosophy of language and pragmatism.
Among the main philosophers of contemporary philosophy of the 19th century, some of them can be highlighted:
- August Comte: (1798 – 1857) AD.
- Soren Kierkegaard: (1813 – 1855) AD.
- Karl Marx(1818 – 1883) AD.
- Friedrich Nietzsche: (1844 – 1900) AD.
- Edmund Husserl: (1859 -1938) AD.
- Gottlob Frege: (1848-1925) AD.
In the 20th century, philosophy would continue with philosophers such as Sigmund Freud, Ernst Mach, Jean-Paul Sartre, Bertrand Russell, Simone De Beauvoir, Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Albert Camus, Karl Jaspers, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Jacques Derrida, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper.
In conclusion, in the philosophical tradition from its origins to the present day, there have been a large number of philosophers and philosophical movements, so it was argued some of the main characteristics of the philosophical history.
The history of the atom
The history of the atom
The history of the atom begins 450 years before Christ with the assertions postulated by the Greek philosopher Democritus of Abdera. The philosopher was interested in the discovery of essential substances that contain all substances. He claimed that matter could be indefinitely divided into increasingly smaller particles until reaching the most indivisible point of that matter, which Democritus called atoms, a word that in Greek means inseparable. So, matter was composed of atoms and these were inseparable, so Democritus made a distinction between previous thinkers, who named atomic elements to elements such as water, air, and fire. Democritus claimed that these were not atoms in themselves, but were composed of thousands of them.
In short, Democritus supposed that all matter is composed of solid, indivisible and invisible to the human eye particles, the famous atoms. Although this philosopher interested in physical and chemical processes never had a true proof that proved the existence of the atom. We can affirm that he was the first person to talk about this and consolidate an atomist conception, known today as the Discontinuity of Matter, generating a long debate with the passing of the centuries.
The philosopher Leucippus of Miletus based his idea of the rational origin of the universe on the atom, claiming that the universe was made up of thousands of indivisible particles that came together after an event similar to a whirlwind. Epicurus of Samos, a philosopher from Athens, with his doctrine of nature, claimed, reworking Democritus’s version, that the formation of the universe could have responded to a process of chance, in other words, the probability that atoms would suffer deviations in their trajectory, colliding with each other.
It took several centuries for John Dalton, known as the father of atomic theory, to be born in 1776. He was born in the United Kingdom, specifically in Cumbria. From the age of 12, he showed his intelligence. As a young man, he was interested in meteorology and from there his attraction to certain chemical phenomena exploded. Dalton’s postulates marked a major change in knowledge about atoms and their behavior.
In that sense, the scientist claimed that matter is composed of indivisible atoms, this statement was not very new. But, in addition, he added that atoms have an immutable character, that is, they can never be transformed into each other, what has variable value are chemical combinations because they are made up of identical molecules and these in turn by atoms. Thanks to an endless number of experiments carried out by Dalton, the Dalton Atomic Theory was established.
The mentioned theory helped to calculate the atomic weight of the elements, such as the gaseous elements. He discovered the atomic masses of several elements by relating them to the mass of hydrogen. These discoveries were presented on October 21, 1803 during a conference at the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. Later, the disquisitions were reflected in his famous book A New System of Chemical Philosophy, published in 1808.
In this text, the following general statements can be highlighted: matter is composed of atomic particles, indivisible and indestructible, atoms of the same element are equal, as well as their weight and qualities, atoms do not divide even when they combine through chemical reactions, atoms of different elements can combine and form compound atoms, finally, chemical compounds are born from the union of atoms of two or more different elements. Many of Dalton’s statements were challenged or reaffirmed.
In the future, Michael Faraday reformulated several of Dalton’s proposals. In 1883, he discovered that the flow of electric current from one substance to another produces certain chemical changes, indicating the existence of a relationship between electricity and matter, ensuring that atoms must have an electric structure that supplies the appropriate amount of electric current to the weight of the decomposed chemical substance.
En el año de 1906 sale a la luz el Modelo Atómico de Thomson, que claramente invalidaba el anterior Modelo Atómico de Dalton ya que este no reflexionaba sobre la estructura interna del átomo. El físico británico Joseph John Thomson se valió del uso de los rayos catódicos dispuestos en un tubo de vacío que eran desviados al aplicar un campo magnético para obtener las pruebas para dar a luz este modelo.
The Thomson atomic model postulates that: The atom has negatively charged electrons embedded in a sphere of positive charge, these electrons are uniformly distributed throughout the atom, the atom is neutral so that the negative charges of the electrons are offset by the positive charge, the electrons can be extracted from the atom of any substance. Thus, Thomson represented the atom with a static model, in which the electrons were fixed within the positive mass, this model was approved by the scientific community because it allowed to explain qualitatively phenomena such as the emission of light by atoms, although later facts modified this hypothesis.
Ernest Rutherford was the one who modified Thomson’s model, who in 1911 considered that in the central nucleus of the atom there is the positive charge and mass; while around there are electrons spinning at high speed. On the other hand, he discovered that the nucleus has a crust and a nucleus, the electrons that spin do so in the crust of the atom around the nucleus; this region is small and is located in the center of the atom that has the positive charge.
Just two years later, Niels Bohr, studying Rutherford’s model disciplinely, deepened the way in which electrons were kept under a stable orbit around the nucleus without radiating energy, also thanks to the quantum number n, he was able to assure that first: there is a distance between the orbit and the nucleus; second that not all electrons circulate through all orbits and third he calculated the radius of the orbit. Bohr also explained why atoms showed characteristic emission spectra and how electrons can emit or absorb energy during jumps from one orbit to another. Shortly thereafter, the Sommerfeld model came out, based on Bohr’s, formulating contributions to relativistic mechanics indicating that electrons travel at speeds close to that of light. It can also be highlighted that for Sommerfeld, the electron is basically an electric current. In 1924, the Schrödinger model, formulated by Erwin Schrödinger, came to light, which as an innovation takes into account the four quantum numbers: n, i, m, s. to affirm that in an atom there are no electrons with the four quantum numbers equal.
In the 60s American physicists Murray Gell-Mann and Georg Zweig detected a subatomic particle called a quark. In the 21st century a team of scientists carried out experiments in the Large Hadron Collider found the pentaquarks. This discovery of the subatomic particle helps to better understand the constitution of ordinary matter, neutrons and protons.
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