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Jared Leto

Jared Leto Biography
Gage Skidmore from Peoria, AZ, United States of America [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Jared Leto Biography

Jared Joseph Leto was born in Bossier City, Louisiana, United States, on December 26, 1971 (currently, 46 years old) is an American multi-instrumentalist, actor, director and producer, Oscar winner, Golden Globe, SAG, among other awards. He is also known as a director by the name of Bartholomew Cubbins but is best known as the vocalist, guitarist, bassist, pianist, composer, and founder of the alternative rock band 30 Seconds to Mars.

He lived in his hometown until his parents divorced when he was little, custody was left to his mother Constance After the separation, Jared lived with his older brother, Shannon Leto, his mother and grandfather. Jared and his family moved to different places like Colorado, Virginia, Wyoming, and Haiti for work reasons.

The two brothers, influenced from childhood by the love of art for their mom, formed a rock band. The first instrument that little Jared learned was a piano. He himself has declared in interviews that his musical influences are: Nirvana, Alice in Chains, Deftones, Led Zeppelin, Guns N ‘Roses, Pearl Jam, The Goo Goo Dolls, Stone Temple Pilots, Everclear, Pink Floyd, Radiohead, The Cure, and U2. «I grew up in an atmosphere of actors, musicians, photographers and different theater actors».

He left school when he was in tenth grade, however, after some time, he decided to return and focus on his education by entering Flint Hill High School in Oakton, Virginia. He graduated in 1989 from Emerson Preparatory School. Shortly after, Jared entered the University of Philadelphia, to study art with a specialization in painting. However, his interest turned to act, for which he left his studies as a painter. Later he would move to New York to begin classes on cinema at the New York City’s High School of Visual Arts. Being a student, he wrote and starred in his first short film: Crying Boy.

In 1992 Leto moved to Los Angeles to begin his acting career. In 1993 he got his first roles in television series such as Camp Wilder and Almost Home and My So-Called Life. A year later, he made his television debut in Cool and the Crazy, and his film debut came in the movie How to Make an American Quilt in 1995.

His first leading role was in Prefontaine (1997) which recreated the biography of the runner Steve Prefontaine. For the role, Leto investigated the life of the athlete, his family, and friends, adapting his voice and even his physical form. The transformation was so complete that, seeing it, Steve’s sister was moved to tears. His performance got very good reviews.

After his first leading role, Jared begins to obtain several roles in well-known films, such as Basil (1998), The Thin Red Line (1998), Black and White (1999), Fight Club (1999) and Interrupted Innocence (1999) together Winona Ryder and Angelina Jolie. For this last performance, Leto was nominated for an award from the Broadcast Film Critics Association in the category of best-supporting actor.

Jared tried very hard in his career as an actor, in Requiem for a Dream where he played a heroin addict, his preparation was extreme. Leto lived in the streets of New York and isolated completely, even interrupted contact with his girlfriend at the time, Cameron Diaz, for two months. His physical and emotional health was totally affected, he even lost 28 kilos on purpose, since it was necessary to interpret his character realistically.

Some more recent roles were: Chapter 27 (2007), Awake (2007), Mr. Nobody (2009), Dallas Buyers Club (2013), Suicide Squad (2016).

As for his musical career, Jared (vocalist and guitar) formed in 1998, along with his brother Shannon Leto (drums), the renowned band 30 Seconds To Mars, in Los Angeles, California. What began as a small family project, an illusion of children soon became a call to something bigger. Bassist Matt Wachter joined the band in 2001 and a little later, they also joined Solon Bixler on rhythm guitar and Kevin Drake on acoustic guitar.

Jared despite being a well-known Hollywood actor prefers not to use that information to promote the band. He has said that if the band has triumphed, it is because of their music; in fact, the band refused to play in places where their name is used as an actor to promote their concerts.

In 1999, the band signed their first contract with Virgin Records, with them in 2002, their first album came out, which, in general, received positive reviews. This album is generally described as a concept album.

At the end of 2002, guitarist Solon Bixler left the band due to personal problems. On January 29, 2003, the guitarist and follower of the band, Tomo Milicevic, presented the auditions to be the new guitarist, earning respect and acceptance of the members of the band, achieved his goal. Other albums are A Beautiful Lie (2005), This Is War (2009), Love, Lust, Faith, and Dreams (2013).

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The history of the atom

The history of the atom
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The history of the atom

The history of the atom begins 450 years before Christ with the assertions postulated by the Greek philosopher Democritus of Abdera. The philosopher was interested in the discovery of essential substances that contain all substances. He claimed that matter could be indefinitely divided into increasingly smaller particles until reaching the most indivisible point of that matter, which Democritus called atoms, a word that in Greek means inseparable. So, matter was composed of atoms and these were inseparable, so Democritus made a distinction between previous thinkers, who named atomic elements to elements such as water, air, and fire. Democritus claimed that these were not atoms in themselves, but were composed of thousands of them.

In short, Democritus supposed that all matter is composed of solid, indivisible and invisible to the human eye particles, the famous atoms. Although this philosopher interested in physical and chemical processes never had a true proof that proved the existence of the atom. We can affirm that he was the first person to talk about this and consolidate an atomist conception, known today as the Discontinuity of Matter, generating a long debate with the passing of the centuries.

The philosopher Leucippus of Miletus based his idea of the rational origin of the universe on the atom, claiming that the universe was made up of thousands of indivisible particles that came together after an event similar to a whirlwind. Epicurus of Samos, a philosopher from Athens, with his doctrine of nature, claimed, reworking Democritus’s version, that the formation of the universe could have responded to a process of chance, in other words, the probability that atoms would suffer deviations in their trajectory, colliding with each other.

It took several centuries for John Dalton, known as the father of atomic theory, to be born in 1776. He was born in the United Kingdom, specifically in Cumbria. From the age of 12, he showed his intelligence. As a young man, he was interested in meteorology and from there his attraction to certain chemical phenomena exploded. Dalton’s postulates marked a major change in knowledge about atoms and their behavior.

In that sense, the scientist claimed that matter is composed of indivisible atoms, this statement was not very new. But, in addition, he added that atoms have an immutable character, that is, they can never be transformed into each other, what has variable value are chemical combinations because they are made up of identical molecules and these in turn by atoms. Thanks to an endless number of experiments carried out by Dalton, the Dalton Atomic Theory was established.

The mentioned theory helped to calculate the atomic weight of the elements, such as the gaseous elements. He discovered the atomic masses of several elements by relating them to the mass of hydrogen. These discoveries were presented on October 21, 1803 during a conference at the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. Later, the disquisitions were reflected in his famous book A New System of Chemical Philosophy, published in 1808.

In this text, the following general statements can be highlighted: matter is composed of atomic particles, indivisible and indestructible, atoms of the same element are equal, as well as their weight and qualities, atoms do not divide even when they combine through chemical reactions, atoms of different elements can combine and form compound atoms, finally, chemical compounds are born from the union of atoms of two or more different elements. Many of Dalton’s statements were challenged or reaffirmed.

In the future, Michael Faraday reformulated several of Dalton’s proposals. In 1883, he discovered that the flow of electric current from one substance to another produces certain chemical changes, indicating the existence of a relationship between electricity and matter, ensuring that atoms must have an electric structure that supplies the appropriate amount of electric current to the weight of the decomposed chemical substance.

En el año de 1906 sale a la luz el Modelo Atómico de Thomson, que claramente invalidaba el anterior Modelo Atómico de Dalton ya que este no reflexionaba sobre la estructura interna del átomo. El físico británico Joseph John Thomson se valió del uso de los rayos catódicos dispuestos en un tubo de vacío que eran desviados al aplicar un campo magnético para obtener las pruebas para dar a luz este modelo.

The Thomson atomic model postulates that: The atom has negatively charged electrons embedded in a sphere of positive charge, these electrons are uniformly distributed throughout the atom, the atom is neutral so that the negative charges of the electrons are offset by the positive charge, the electrons can be extracted from the atom of any substance. Thus, Thomson represented the atom with a static model, in which the electrons were fixed within the positive mass, this model was approved by the scientific community because it allowed to explain qualitatively phenomena such as the emission of light by atoms, although later facts modified this hypothesis.

Ernest Rutherford was the one who modified Thomson’s model, who in 1911 considered that in the central nucleus of the atom there is the positive charge and mass; while around there are electrons spinning at high speed. On the other hand, he discovered that the nucleus has a crust and a nucleus, the electrons that spin do so in the crust of the atom around the nucleus; this region is small and is located in the center of the atom that has the positive charge.

Just two years later, Niels Bohr, studying Rutherford’s model disciplinely, deepened the way in which electrons were kept under a stable orbit around the nucleus without radiating energy, also thanks to the quantum number n, he was able to assure that first: there is a distance between the orbit and the nucleus; second that not all electrons circulate through all orbits and third he calculated the radius of the orbit. Bohr also explained why atoms showed characteristic emission spectra and how electrons can emit or absorb energy during jumps from one orbit to another. Shortly thereafter, the Sommerfeld model came out, based on Bohr’s, formulating contributions to relativistic mechanics indicating that electrons travel at speeds close to that of light. It can also be highlighted that for Sommerfeld, the electron is basically an electric current. In 1924, the Schrödinger model, formulated by Erwin Schrödinger, came to light, which as an innovation takes into account the four quantum numbers: n, i, m, s. to affirm that in an atom there are no electrons with the four quantum numbers equal.

In the 60s American physicists Murray Gell-Mann and Georg Zweig detected a subatomic particle called a quark. In the 21st century a team of scientists carried out experiments in the Large Hadron Collider found the pentaquarks. This discovery of the subatomic particle helps to better understand the constitution of ordinary matter, neutrons and protons.

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Science

Euclid

Biography of Euclid
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Euclid Biography

Euclid or Euclides was a Greek mathematician and geometer, considered one of the great mathematicians of antiquity and father of geometry. He was born in Alexandria in 435 b.C and would die in 265 b.C.. However, there is not much information about his life. The historians say that Euclid would begin his education in Athens, where he acquired his great knowledge of geometry, in the elaborate school of Plato. Later on, Euclid would become professor of his own school in Alexandria, which was the most important in the Hellenic world and in which he would reach the highest recognition as a teacher, in the reign Ptolemy I Sóter, who was the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty that ruled Egypt and who seek Euclid to teach him and shorten the process to learn mathematics and geometry.

Euclid was the author of different works, such as “Elements”, which is a collection of works of other philosophers such as Hippocrates, and this work would challenge some of the most important literary works in the world, such as the Bible and Don Quixote. This work was made up of 13 books, of which the first 6 made reference to basic flat geometry concepts. From the seventh to the tenth book, Euclid deals with numerical issues such as divisibility, prime numbers, and radicals. In the last three books, he would include topics on the geometry of solids, polyhedra, and circumstantial spheres. Among the most important theorems of Euclid’s work are:

  • The sum of the internal angles of a triangle, add up to 180 degrees.
  • In a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the adjacents, which refers to the Pythagorean theorem.

Besides this, Euclides formulated 5 postulates, which he used as a starting point to explain geometric and mathematical knowledge. These postulates are:

  1. A straight line segment can be drawn joining any two points.
  2. Any straight line segment can be extended indefinitely in a straight line.
  3. Given any straight line segment, a circle can be drawn having the segment as radius and one endpoint as center.
  4. All right angles are congruent.
  5. If two lines are drawn which intersect a third in such a way that the sum of the inner angles on one side is less than two right angles, then the two lines inevitably must intersect each other on that side if extended far enough. This postulate is equivalent to what is known as the parallel postulate.

Euclid’s fifth postulate cannot be proven as a theorem, although this was attempted by many people. Euclid himself used only the first four postulates.

The geometrical principles of Euclid were important in areas such as physics, astronomy, chemistry, some engineering and worked as inspiration for the Ptolemaic theory of the Universe in the second century. His ideas also formed an abstraction of reality, because he made assumptions such as that a point has no size so it is assigned a dimension zero or equivalent to zero, a line is a set of points that has neither width nor thickness, only length and assigned a value equal to 1, a surface has no thickness and has dimension 2 equivalent in length and width; to conclude, he said that a solid body, like a cube, has dimension equivalent to 3, length, width, and height.

“Elements” has had more than a thousand editions since the first time it was published in the year 1482, so it is said that Euclid is one of the most read mathematics in history.

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