James Clerk Maxwell Biography
James Clerk Maxwell (June 13, 1831 – November 5, 1879) is known as the father of electromagnetism. Shy man, curious, religious and amazing intelligence, which led him to be one of the most recognized physicists worldwide. James was born in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland. He developed as an only child in a Scottish middle-class family, his father John Maxwell was a prominent lawyer in the city and his French mother, daughter of a renowned naval judge, she died when James was just nine years old because of abdominal cancer, the same disease that would end Maxwell’s life.
During his childhood, he showed to be restless, skillful and very agile mentally, before these abilities his aunt Jane Cay decided to take the responsibility of his basic education inscribing it in the Edinburgh Academy. His performance was exemplary, especially in the areas of physics and mathematics. Although he also won several poetry and English contests.
By 1850 James began his studies at the University of Cambridge, where the eagerness to know and solve in a simple way complicated problems concerning physics generated impression and admiration in his contemporaries. In addition, he was accepted into a major group of the university where he debated various academic and intellectual issues. During his career Maxwell dazzled and aroused all kinds of feelings, for this reason at the end, the prestigious Trinity College in Cambridge offered a place for him, but because of the serious illness of his father due to illness had to give up the square and address to his native land to take care of his father. In 1856, despite the care provided, his father died.
At that time James Maxwell left Edinburgh and became a professor of natural philosophy at the Marischal College in Aberdeen. Marischal College not only gave him the opportunity to develop his intellectual knowledge but also to marry Katherine Mary Dewar, daughter of the director of the university, who is known to have a great interest in physics and who constantly assisted him in the laboratory. His presence in this institution was so relevant that Marischal College commemorated the centenary of his appointment as a professor with a bust prepared by Pilkington Jackson. There are currently two replicas of this bust in the James Clerk Maxwell building of the University of Edinburgh and the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation.
“The science of color must be considered, in essence, as a science of the mind.” James Clerk Maxwell
Years later the Cavendish Laboratory appointed him director, at this time Maxwell outlined his academic life to research and ignored teaching, in this sense, James published two classic articles in the study of electromagnetism, one of them was the Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1873). Also, it produced remarkable experimental results in what corresponds to the thermodynamic functions, at this stage of his life the presence of Michael Faraday was very important for him because this scientist of advanced age contributed much to his knowledge, specifically, in the field of electrolysis and the principles of electromagnetism.
From that moment Maxwell advanced studies, and reflected his curious and insatiable spirit, in fields such as physics, mathematics, astronomy, chromatic perception, electromagnetism, heat photography, among others. To illustrate better: he adequately described the interaction between electricity and magnetism through his famous equations, established the concept of electromagnetic wave, created a theory in which he suggested the possibility of conceiving electromagnetic waves in the laboratory, applied statistical analysis to the interpretation of the kinetic theory of gases, enunciated the law of equipartition of energy and also developed a meritorious theory on chromatic perception, developing the treaties of tricolor photography.
Finally, in astronomy, after a period between 1855 and 1859 in which he observed the rings of Saturn and pointed, supported in infinite mathematical calculations, which were not solid or fluid rings, but an accumulation of tiny bodies in orbit, placed that otherwise, the annular system could not be stable. This calculation left the world of science impressed. George Biddell Airy, Royal Astronomer of England and professor at the University of Cambridge, said that this research has been “one of the most extraordinary applications of mathematics to physics I have ever seen.”
“That Maxwell is a genius, he helped me with the theory of relativity.” Albert Einstein
Eight years after his death, in 1876 due to cancer, his postulates on electromagnetic waves gave rise to promote rapid communication and distance, Albert Einstein considered the contributions of Maxwell to science as the most important since Newton’s time.
This man and his intellectual legacy continue to be of great importance and his theories are still studied, in the year 2015, the International Year of Light, a homage was paid to Maxwell and a recognition of his publication on electromagnetism. In short, without their discoveries, we would not have satellites, television, radio, radar, mobile phones. The influence of Maxwell’s study was the platform for most of the arguments of both the modern quantum mechanics of the twentieth century and the theory of Einsteinian relativity.
Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge
Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge Biography
Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge (February 8, 1794 – March 25, 1867) was born in Hamburg, Germany. Chemist and pharmacist, famous for discovering caffeine in 1820, after being encouraged to study coffee beans by renowned German scientist Johann Wolfgang Goethe.
Runge is considered one of the most prominent scientists of the 19th century. However, he was little appreciated at the time. Among his most outstanding findings are: atropine, aniline, phenol, quinine, pyrrole, and tar distilled dyes, as well as chromatography. Throughout his academic career he served as a professor at the universities of Berlin and Wroclaw, subsequently worked for a pharmaceutical company in which he sought financial support to make his discoveries profitable. However, his efforts were ignored.
Studies and beginnings
He was born into a humble family that lived in Billwerder (Hamburg). His father was a Lutheran pastor. He studied at the primary school located in Schiffbeck, after a few years he began to be interested in science, a passion he has cultivated since then. After carrying out his basic academic training, he chose as a profession the pharmaceutical company, an area in which she quickly excelled, thus earning her own livelihood since she was young. At the beginning of the 1810s, he observed how a drop of belladonna increased the diameter of the pupil of the eye in a cat, thus discovering the mydriatic effect of the plant. In 1816, he entered the University of Berlin, where he studied medicine, two years later he continued his training in Göttingen, the city in which he carried out his practices in chemistry.
At the end of his formative period in Göttingen, he moved to Jena, where shortly thereafter he obtained his Ph.D. in Physics, after presenting an essay in which he delved into the poisoning with Belan and Belladonna. At that time he had as a Professor of Chemistry Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, a renowned German chemist who invited Johann Wolfgang Goethe to observe Runge’s discovery about the effect of belladonna on the pupil, for this the young scientist presented himself with a cat, which had pupils of different diameter, impressed by his discovery, Goethe gave him a box of coffee beans and asked him to analyze the chemical composition of coffee, research that resulted in the discovery of caffeine in 1820.
Before his great discovery, he returned to Berlin, where he began to work as a university professor while continuing to work as a pharmacist. During this period, he lived with the famous physicist Johann Christian Poggendorf who was his school partner in Schiffbeck. Together, they turned their home into a laboratory, where they conducted numerous experiments. At the beginning of the 1820s, he carried out various studies related to indigo dye and its chemical composition (salts and metal oxides), information that was part of his doctoral thesis. He later published Recent phytochemical discoveries, a work in which he delved into this area of science, seeking to establish scientific phytochemistry.
During his stay in Berlin, he began teaching about plants and technical chemistry. In 1823, he traveled to Paris to continue studying, later moved to Wroclaw for a short time, then visited Switzerland, France, Germany, Holland, and England. After traveling through Europe, Runge settled in Wroclaw, a city where he served as an associate professor at the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Wroclaw, without receiving a fixed salary. In the course of these years he gave various conferences and focused on his research, with the goal of carrying out chemical studies that had a practical benefit; a short time later he left his job at the university to devote himself fully to research. In 1832 he was hired to direct the technical management of a chemical factory sponsored by the Prussian government, located in Oranienburg.
While working at the factory, he discovered the aniline and phenol by distilling the coal tar, aware of the entrepreneurial potential of this discovery, he sought the support of the company. However, the factory director rejected the proposals proposed by Runge. For this discovery, he was exalted at the Industrial Congress in London and was later awarded in Berlin. For this same period, he investigated the intensities of the colors through the filter paper. In 1852 he was fired after being accused of working for a short time, an accusation that was linked to the academic activity of the scientist, who at this time focused on his studies and published about seven books. Runge lived for a short time of the pension of the company, which stopped arriving after the death of the owner.
The last years of his life faced serious financial problems, falling into oblivion. However, he continued to carry out research on practical chemistry, produced artificial fertilizers and wrote several books, including maintenance letters, a book in which he gave advice on the domestic environment, such as preparations, recipes, and Tricks to eliminate stains and odors. After a long academic career the scientist died on March 25, 1867, in Oranienburg, was buried in the municipal cemetery.
Although his studies and approaches were little appreciated in his time, currently Runge, he is considered one of the most relevant scientists of the nineteenth century.
Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge doodle
Google honored the scientist on the 225th anniversary of his birth, becoming the center of the Doodle on February 8th. In the image, the scientist is seen surrounded by his discoveries such as caffeine and the mydriatic effect of belladonna on the cat’s eyes.
Anders Celsius biography
Anders Celsius (November 27, 1701 – April 25, 1744) was born in Uppsala, Sweden. Physicist and astronomer, creator of the centesimal scale of the thermometer known as Grade Celsius (° C), which replaced the scale proposed by the German scientist, Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1724. Celsius, like many other scientists of his day, had a careful education that covered various fields. However, he focused fully on physics and astronomy, areas in which he excelled being considered one of the most prominent scientists of the 18th century. Throughout his academic career, he served as a professor of astronomy at the University of Uppsala. He was also one of the supervisors of the construction of the Uppsala Observatory, which he directed for several years.
He was born in a family belonging to the academic circle of the country. His father was Nils Celsius, an outstanding astronomer, a descendant of Magnus Celsius, a renowned mathematician and astronomer, who deciphered the runes of Staveless. His uncle Olof Celsius was the creator of a botanical school in Uppsala and a professor famous for his knowledge about mosses. On the maternal side, Celsius is related to Anders Spole, an astronomer and mathematician who served as a professor at Upsala University.
After completing his studies he began to practice as a professor at the University of Uppsala (1730-1744) for 14 years. During this time, he conducted various investigations related to the field of astronomy. In the early years of the 1730s, he undertook a trip through Europe in which he visited the most outstanding astronomical observatories of the time, arriving to work with renowned astronomers. In 1733, he published a compilation of 316 observations of northern lights, in which he speculated about their relationship with magnetism.
Between 1736 and 1737 he was part of the group of researchers that accompanied the French astronomer Pierre Louis Maupertuis, on his journey through the northern region of Sweden where he sought to measure the length of the meridian near the pole, to compare it with the measurement made in Peru near to Ecuador. This research was known as the Lapland Expedition, which sought to demonstrate that Newton’s predictions about the flattening of the earth at the poles were correct, a conclusion they reached after the measurements. The calculations and conclusions of the expedition were included in La Figure de la Terre, a book published by Maupertuis in 1738.
For his participation in the expedition, Celsius was rewarded as an annual pension of 1,000 pounds, economic income that allowed him to invest in the construction of the Uppsala Observatory, which was one of the most modern of his time, after the opening he was appointed director of the observatory (1740). During the following years, he made various geographical measures used in the Swedish map. In the 1740s he carried out the studies in relation to the temperature scale by which he is known.
By 1742, he proposed to the Swedish academy a new way of measuring the temperature based on two established points: 0 indicated the boiling point of water and 100 represented the degree of freezing; which meant that as the heat increased the temperature dropped. This proposal would replace the scale created by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1724, known as Fahrenheit Grade (° F), which ranged from 32 to 212 degrees.
Explained the operation of the scale, Celsius, created the centesimal scale that ranged from 0 to 100 degrees and invented the mercury thermometer. After three years, the scale was reversed by the Swedish scientist Karl von Linné, a modification with which it has been used since then. The scale of the Swedish scientist was called in the first years, Swedish thermometer, a term used by the scientific community of the time, however, since the 19th century it began to be called Celsius thermometer, in homage to its creator, it has also been known as Grade Celsius (° C). The following century this was replaced by the Kelvin scale (Kelvin K Grade), created in 1848 by William Thomson (Lord Kelvin).
The contributions of Celsius in the field of science are not reduced to scale, he was also the first scientist to raise the relationship between the phenomenon of the auroras and magnetism, also made numerous observations of this phenomenon that allowed his study years late. Another contribution of this scientist in the astronomical field was his studies on eclipses and stars, which included a detailed catalog of 300 stars and their system. Two years after the scale was created, the Swedish scientist contracted tuberculosis, a disease that deteriorated his health in a short time, passing away on April 25th, 1744, at the age of 43.
Willem Einthoven Biography
Willem Einthoven (May 21, 1860 – September 28, 1927) Physiologist and physician. Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1924. He was born in Semarang, Indonesia. He is well known for his contributions to the development of the electrocardiograph and its clinical application. His father died when they lived in Java, so Willem moved to the University of Utrecht to study medicine.
After finishing his studies he obtained the position of professor at the University of Leiden to deal with the positions of physiology and histology. He took the opportunity to advance an important work in the field of research. He quickly showed himself as a reputable scientist, participated in numerous international scientific forums and the best thing is that by managing several languages he could communicate his ideas faithfully without the need for translators.
For several years he experimented with the rope galvanometer and its utility for the registration of cardiac potentials, and the results obtained were published in an article in the year 1901. Five years later, he masterfully described the clinical applications of the electrocardiogram in Telecardiogramme (1906). After that, he published another article that laid the foundations for the development of this important tool in cardiology analysis. His investigative work was carried out simultaneously with his work as a professor.
Thanks to his work, the galvanometer was used to measure the differences in electrical potential during systolic and diastolic heart contractions and reproduce them graphically. This procedure is known as an electrocardiogram.
Later, he was interested in analyzing how healthy hearts worked and then defining a reference frame, through which attention was paid to the deviations caused by the disease. To sum up, he revolutionized the study, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac pathologies. In his honor, the lunar crater Einthoven bears his name.
Lucy Wills Biography
Lucy Wills (May 10, 1888 – 1964) hematologist and botany. She was born in Sutton Coldfield, United Kingdom. Her family enjoyed a good social and economic position. Therefore, she was able to study at Cheltenham Ladies ’College, an educational institute that offered high educational standards in teaching. Then, she studied Botany and Geology in 1911 but did not receive a Cambridge graduate degree until 1928, when Cambridge began granting degrees to women.
By that time, Wills had admirably managed to graduate as a doctor at the London Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine for Women. From the beginning, he knew that he would devote her knowledge to research and teaching in the Department of Pathological Chemistry of the same center in London. For the year 1928 Margaret Balfour contacted her. For several years she served as chief of pathology until her retirement in 1947.
After her retirement, she worked in South Africa and Fiji studying the effects of nutrition on health. During the last ten years of her life, she was a member of the local government for Chelsea. She started working on macrocytic anemia of pregnancy that primarily affects pregnant women in the tropics, with inadequate diets, this work was developed in several areas of India.
This woman is owed several contributions, such as discovering a nutritional factor in yeast that prevents and cures this disorder: the Wills factor or folate, the natural form of folic acid. In that sense, in the year 1930, she showed that anemia could be reversed with brewer’s yeast, which contains folate.
As part of a recognition of her work and the advancement of medicine, on May 10, 2019, the 131st anniversary of her birth, the Google search engine commemorated Wills with a Doodle available for North America, parts of South America and Europe, Israel, India, and New Zealand. Her knowledge changed the face of prenatal preventive care for women around the world.
- Studies on blood and urinary chemistry during pregnancy: blood sugar curves.
- Studies in pernicious anemia of pregnancy (1930). This research has 4 parts.
- Treatment of “pernicious anemia” of pregnancy and “tropical anemia” with special reference to yeast extract as a healing agent.
- The nature of the hemopoietic factor in Marmite.
- A new factor in the production and cure of certain macrocytic anemias.
- Tropical macrocytic anemia: its relationship with pernicious anemia.
Claude Bernard Biography
Claude Bernard (July 12, 1813 – February 10, 1878) physiologist. He was born in Saint-Julien, France. The top representative of the French physiology of the 19th century. His life was dedicated to studying the nervous regulation of salivary secretion, pancreatic digestion, and glycogenic liver function. He is admired for having discovered vasomotor innervation and creating the concept of internal secretion. His contributions to experimental pharmacology are also salvageable.
Bernard at nineteen entered as a clerk in a pharmacy in Vaise, a suburb of Lyon. He liked literature so he wrote a drama entitled Arthur de Bretagne, he went to Paris; but then he started studying medicine, leaving literature aside. At first, he had the guidance of the physiologist François Magendie, who was a trainer, and soon gave proof of his genius. In 1843 he could already demonstrate the glycogenic function of the liver. He was an assistant to Magendie and professor of physiology at Collège de France. In the year of 1853, he obtained the title of doctor of science with the thesis Investigations about a new function of the liver, considered as a producing organ of sugary matter.
The following year he was a professor of experimental medicine at the Collège de France. Years later, and thanks to the knowledge acquired, he wrote Introduction to the study of experimental medicine (1865) allowed him to be part of the French Academy; this year he was entrusted with the chair of general physiology of the Sorbonne Natural History Museum, and in 1869 he was appointed member of the Imperial Senate of Napoleon III. In 1870 his intellectual vitality was affected by a kidney disease contracted because of the cold and humidity of his laboratory.
This French defended the determinism linked to neo-vitalism. He also studied, in addition to hepatic glycogenesis, the sympathetic nervous system and poisons. Among his works are Leçon sur la physiologie expérimentale appliquée a la médecine (1856), Les propriétés des tissus vivants (1866) and Leçon Sur Les phenomènes de la vie (1878).
In broad strokes, his works advocated naturalistic principles and thus generated a great influence that he exerted on the naturalist movement, mainly in Zola. Bernard establishes the rules of medicine that is true science and method, must have a solid foundation. For hi medicine must be like physics and chemistry, a science that undergoes an experimental method. But experience is not proven simply by the facts, without being guided by a precise conviction; rather, it must be rigorous and complete experimentation. So, the philosophical and theological yoke is excluded, admitting a personal scientific authority.
Thus, Bernard says, the hypotheses will encourage discoveries and experimentation serves as a guide. Émile Zola developed in his thinking of naturalist novelist Bernard’s famous scientific premises; his essay The experimental novel represents the attempt to apply the principles of physiology to a conception of art. Unfortunately, he died on February 10, 1878. He is remembered for being one of the referents of experimental physiology of the nineteenth century, and, at the same time, one of the most illustrious thinkers of the time in Europe. The medicine had many advances in an anomaly that affects the sympathetic nerves of the face, it was called Claude Bernard-Horner syndrome.
Similarly, he contributed to the development of therapeutics, diabetes, indications of bleeding, detoxification by carbon monoxide through mechanical ventilation, the treatment of anemia with iron lactate, the decrease in body temperature through physical means, treatment of alcohol intoxication, morphine applications, the effects of carbon dioxide, intravenous administration of physiological serum, cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques, among others.
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